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Fire-fighting valves - classification, application, operating characteristics

Fireproof valves are an integral part of modern ventilation systems. The installation of such fire protection systems allows timely localization of foci of ignition and quickly eliminate fire-dangerous situations.

What are the fire valves?

Such systems are autonomous installations that are built into ventilation ducts and prevent the spread of fire, smoke, and combustion products. Installation of fire protection valves is an indispensable condition for the protection of people, security of property in the presence of numerous adjacent premises.


According to the requirements of fire safety valves must necessarily be present in ventilation and heating structures, as well as in air conditioning systems. At present, they are installed in industrial, civil, residential buildings. Fireproof valves act as a part of smoke ventilation, which facilitates the evacuation of people when there is a danger of contamination of the space with carbon monoxide.


Currently, the following types of fire valves are distinguished:

  1. Smoke removal - open when ignition and prevent the spread of carbon monoxide between the rooms.
  2. Open - create an inseparable barrier to the path of ignition.
  3. Closed - prevent the spread of fire when extinguishing the fire with powder, gas or aerosol.
  4. Double action - opened when the ventilation function in the normal mode. They close during the fire. After extinguishing the fire contribute to the removal of smoke and gases from the premises.

Fire Valve Control

Any fire-retardant system, regardless of type and design, can be adjusted in manual or automatic mode. In the first case, the valves are activated due to the appropriate actions of the persons responsible for fire protection. Automatic control involves triggering when receiving signals from security systems. More popular and reliable is the last option.

Features of choice

Fireproof valves are able to ensure the safety of any room, creating conditions for the rapid evacuation of residents or staff. Looking at the huge variety of options available, the need to select the most effective solution can cause a lot of questions.

It is recommended to select fire protection valves, depending on the nature of the ventilation system and the existing norms that are attached to the operation of the equipment. The main selection criteria are the achievement of high functionality and reliability.

Preference should be given to valves made of materials resistant to high temperatures. The best option is to be made of high - temperature high-alloy steel. In this case, the installation of the fire damper must be carried out in accordance with government regulations and requirements. In addition, it is necessary to take into account the specific features of the operation of individual rooms.

Functioning of valves in the event of fire hazards

The operation of the individual mechanisms in the event of fires has the following differences:

  1. Systems with manual drive - initially the flap is in the "open" position. When the temperature of the surrounding space rises to a limit of 70 ° C, a low-melting solder is deformed, which acts as a connecting link for the details of the mechanism. The damper is released, which immediately closes the passage opening under the action of the spring.
  2. Fire-retardant devices - when the voltage is applied to the electric drive, the flap moves to the "open" position. The spring of the reverse action is cocked. De-energizing the drive causes the damper to close. Activation occurs by means of a signal from automatic fire-fighting systems at achievement of dangerous temperatures.
  3. Smoke exhaust valves - in operation the damper is in the "closed" position. The supply of electrical voltage to the drive from automatic devices causes the opening of the damper, which facilitates the removal of smoke and gases from the room. A power failure causes the valve to return to its original state by means of a spring rod.
  4. Systems with an electromagnet - the initially open damper is retracted after receiving a control signal from the automatic fire extinguishing system. The activation is due to the activation of the electromagnet when dangerous temperatures are reached. The design of the valves implies the possibility of both automatic and manual closing of the valve.


Regular inspection of the technical condition of fire fighting valves involves the execution of work in several consecutive stages. First of all, a visual inspection is performed. External surfaces are examined, the degree of reliability of fasteners, the efficiency of mobile elements.

The next stage is the operational testing of systems. For this, in the manual or automatic mode, the dampers are closed and opened, which must go unhindered to the operating state, and then return to the starting position. Data on the status of these elements are transmitted to the control panel.

In the end, the existing faults and defects are eliminated. The detection of malfunctions during the warranty period or during installation requires the manufacturer's notice.

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