Education, history and arms of the Golden Horde

The medieval state of the Golden Horde was established in 1224. Under the rule of the khan Mengu-Timur, it gained independence and only formally depended on the emperor. What is the history of the Golden Horde? What are its boundaries? And what was the way of life? Let's try to understand.

origin of name

In eastern sources, as well as in the Golden Horde, a single name of the state was not found. There were a number of notations using the additional "ulus" or names of the landowners. In Russia the phrase "Golden Horde" was first encountered in 1566 in the work "Kazan History". Prior to this, Russian sources used only the word "Horde", which usually meant an army or a mobile camp. There were also other names of the state - Tataria, the Company, the Land of the Tatars, the Tatars.

"Steppe Polovtsian"

In the Northern Altai from the III century BC lived tribes, called Kipchaks (according to the annals - Polovtsians). In the period from VII to VIII century they were subordinated to the Turkic kaganate, and later became part of the western part of the Kimak Khanate. After weakening the power of the state (since the XI century) the Kipchaks forced out the Pechenegs and the northern Oguzes, taking their lands. Soon the tribe became the owner of the Great Steppe from the Danube to the Irtysh. This area of the land was called Desht-i-Kipchak. Subsequently, it was divided into two parts. Western region was owned by Khan Bonyak, and on the east by Togur-khan.

The rebirth and defeat of Desht-i-Kipchak

Thanks to the appearance of wise and warlike Khans, the territory of the Kipchaks has significantly expanded and strengthened. The various nationalities that formed part of the Great Steppe were united, the number of inhabitants increased noticeably. A feudal hierarchy was established, in which the khan was at the head, his right hand was the sultan, the next important post was the bey. The final step was the title of bi. The classification was strictly observed.

When the invasion of the Mongols began in Eastern Europe, the Kipchaks did not stay aside, but they accepted the battle. In 1223, the tribe lost the battle. Soon the Great Steppe became the main land of the Golden Horde.

Formation of ulus

The state of the Golden Horde was one of the largest territories of the Middle Ages. It was formed in 1243 by Juchi's son - Khan Batu. One of the few sources of information of the time was the Laurentian Chronicle. It tells about the arrival of the Grand Duke Yaroslav to Khan Batu after the label for reign in the summer of 1243. The case shows that the khan was already at the head of the new state. After the death of Batu, Berke came to power. He conducted a census of the entire population of Rus and other uluses, and paid special attention to improving the military training of soldiers.

Under the reign of Batu's grandson, Mengu-Timur, the Golden Horde became independent, had its own coins. His tenth son, Khan Uzbek, began to gather meetings on issues of state administration. They were attended by close relatives and influential temniks. Before transferring the problem to the Khan, the council decided, which consisted of four ulus emirs. Khan Uzbek streamlined local authorities and centralized public administration. The rulers of the Golden Horde were notable for their wisdom.

Borders of the State

The Golden Horde included the following regions: Western Siberia, the Crimea, the Volga region, the western part of Central Asia. The state was divided into two parts - Ak, or White Horde, and Kok (Blue). The capital of the Golden Horde in the period from the XIII to the XV century - Saray-Batu. Khan Uzbek transferred the center of a huge territory in Saray-Berk. The state consisted of about 150 cities, 32 of which were coinage.

The Arab sources of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries describe the border of the Golden Horde under the Uzbek Khan as follows: "His kingdom lies in the northeast and extends from the Black Sea to the Irtysh 800 farsakhs in length, and approximately 600 farsakhs wide from Derbentado Bulgar." Map of China, dated 1331, includes the following lands in the Ulus Juchi: Rus, the Volga region with the city of Bulgars, Crimea with the city of Solhat, the North Caucasus, Kazakhstan with the settlements of Khorezm, Sairam, Barchakend, Dzhend. As can be seen the territory, which owned the Uzbek Khan, was huge.

Life of the Tatars

The people in Ulus Juchi mainly engaged in farming and cattle breeding, as well as various crafts. The military composition of the Golden Horde was impressive, the soldiers were engaged in improving their skills. Wise rulers like Khan Uzbek, Janibek, Tokhtamysh, were able to significantly improve the level of development of the state. The cities were distinguished by majolica and mosaic monumental architecture. During the reign of the khans, poetry blossomed, the most famous representatives were Kotb, Khorezmi, Saif Sarai. The influence of the Golden Horde was manifested in active trade with many countries. For example, China imported cotton, silk, porcelain, the Crimea brought glass and weapons, and Rus - furs, leather, walrus tusk and bread. Jewelry, ceramics, glass and bone items were exported, and much more.

The beginning of the destruction of Ulus Juchi

From the end of the 14th century, the Golden Horde began to disintegrate. Basically, because of religious beliefs, the Tatar elite began to be destroyed, repression began. After the death of Khan Uzbek, the throne was captured by his middle son, Janibek. He did not last long. After his death in 1357, his brother Mukhamet-Bardybek came to power. The internecine strife began. For 18 years the rulers of the Golden Horde have changed 25 times. The state broke up into independent khanates with centers in Kazan, Astrakhan, Sarai, and the Meshchersk khanate was formed. During this difficult period, the military leader Mamai began to acquire power, and in 1377 he finally captured it. The leader was not recognized by the people of the Golden and White Horde, as well as by the Cossacks and Nogai, and therefore was forced to seek support. And I found it in the person of the Lithuanian prince Jagiello. Since then, the war with Moscow and the elite of the Golden Horde began. The result of the struggle with the Russian princes was the Battle of Kulikovo in 1380, in which Mamai lost. After the defeat, he again begins to gather troops. At this time, another conqueror appears.

Board of Tokhtamysh and Tamerlan

Taking advantage of internecine wars and uniting the tribes of Turkmens, Tamerlane subjugates the White Horde. Having received news of the loss of Mamai in the Kulikovo battle, he sends his trusted Tokhtamysh against the commander. The latter captured Sarai and went to Mamai, who was killed during the battle. Tokhtamysh became the khan of the Golden Horde. He restored the national religion and the idea of the unity of his people. The influence of the Golden Horde began to return. Khan wanted complete submissiveness of the Russian population and organized military campaigns. During his reign Tokhtamish destroyed Moscow, Serpukhov, Kolomna, Pereslavl. Strengthened in his power, the khan began to take a negative attitude towards his mentor Tamerlane, who did not tolerate arrogance and attacked the Golden Horde. Tatars, without hesitation, rose to defend their territories. After a long struggle, Tamerlane won. Part of the defeated state was devastated. A few years later the battle broke out again, and again the Tatars lost. Tamerlane set the khan of the Golden Horde Meng-Kutluk.

The disintegration of a great state

After the death of the main khan, the Golden Horde represented the following khanates: Saray, Kazan, Astrakhan, Cossack and Crimean. The Cossack state was considered independent, the power of the khan did not spread to him. In 1438, the Kazan Khanate announced its independence . His ruler Kichi-Makhmet expressed his desire to become the chief khan of the Golden Horde. The internecine war began. For the main power began to fight the khans of Saraysk, Crimea and Kazan.

The Turkish sultan began to exert great influence on the events. So, he appointed the khan of the Crimea Mengli-Giray. The Sultan extended his authority not only to the Crimean Khanate, but also to the territory of Kazan. Mengli-Gray continued to fight the rulers of the Golden Horde. In 1502 he entered the battle with Shih-Ahmed and won the war. The capital of the Golden Horde, Saray-Batu, was destroyed. Once the Great State ceased to exist.

And what happened next with a huge territory? At this time, the new nations - Kazakhs, Nogais, Crimean Tatars, Bashkirs and others - have become isolated. In all states of the former Golden Horde, the tradition of inheritance of power has been preserved. At the head of the government of different independent regions was the steppe elite - Chingizid. Some people did not have their own sultans, so they were invited from the Kazakh Khanate. The succession of the throne by the rulers of the "white bone" has not changed for a long time. In the XV century, the following states were formed: Nogai Horde, Crimean, Uzbek, Kazan, Siberian, Kazakh Khanate. In the XVI century, Ivan the Terrible occupied the Kazan state, took Astrakhan and the capital of the Nogai Khanate - Saraichik. In 1582, Yermak and his Cossack detachment captured the Siberian state. From that time, Russia began to expand its territory, conquering more and more cities of the former Golden Horde.

The coat of arms of the Golden Horde

One of the re-issued ancient sources of the XVII century "On the commencement of the sign and the banners or prapors" writes: "... At the same time, great battles still took place between the Romans and the Caesars, and the Cesari thrice beaten the Romans and took from them two banners, that is, two eagles. And from that they began to have the Tsareans in their own home, in the sign and in the press of the two-headed eagle. " In modern language, Byzantium fought with the Romans. And she won the fight. As a winner, the state appropriated the flag of the lost empire. In 1273 Beklearbek Nogai married the daughter of the Byzantine emperor Euphrosyne Paleologus. Before the wedding, he accepted the Orthodox faith. The coat of arms of Byzantium was a two-headed eagle, which Nogai recognized as the emblem of the Golden Horde. During the reign of the Khans Janibek and Uzbek, state coins actively used the image of a new coat of arms.

There was one more emblem, which was often met during archaeological excavations. It depicted a bird with a swastika sign on its chest. This coat of arms of the Golden Horde was present on the ring and on the throne of Genghis Khan. The swastika was the personification of the Sun, happiness and life. Her image was used on belts, carpets, clothes. The symbol was considered a religious sign, possessing great power.

Emblem of the Great Steppe and Astrakhan Province

If you look at these two symbols: the coat of arms of Russia - the coat of arms of the Golden Horde, you can see that they are in many respects similar. In 1260 the city of Tsarev was built, which was the capital of the Horde. Another name is Saray-Berke. The coat of arms of the Golden Horde was an image of a crown (shamrock), under which is a saber (lunar crescent). Joint images of the cross, sickle and sun were a common religious symbol until the separation of adherents of Islam. In the period of feudal fragmentation of the state, power passed to the Astrakhan kingdom, and along with it the coat of arms of the Golden Horde. Photos of similar emblems, now available to historians, confirm the fact of its adoption by Astrakhan. However, there is another symbol of this great state.

Golden Horde. Coat of arms and flag

The state of the Golden Horde possessed not only a coat of arms, but also a flag. The latter was an image of a black owl on a yellow shield (some historians believe that it was another coat of arms). There are a number of manuscripts in which mention is made of this banner. For example, World Geography, the Dutch flag table of the early 18th century, The Book of Marco Polo. There is one more symbol - a black dragon on a yellow background. This emblem by some historians also refers to the flag of the Golden Horde. It was considered the banner of the ancient state and the image of the red crescent on the crown. The flag used black and yellow colors.

A true story is always based on the evidence found. Unfortunately, Ulus Juchi has existed for a long time, many sources of information were lost or destroyed. The question of the existence of the Mongol-Tatar yoke and the role that the Great Khanate actually played is still in question. But what you can be sure of is that the history of the Golden Horde and Russia is closely intertwined. Many customs and objects have been adopted from each other and are still in use.

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