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Fire fighting in case of lack of water: fire fighting features

A fire is a disaster capable of destroying everything in the district. How good that now there are services that deal with its prompt removal. But it happens that you have to perform fire extinguishing when there is not enough water. Or under other difficult conditions, which greatly complicate the whole process. I would like to talk more about such cases.

Complicated environment

Extinguishing fires with a lack of water is very difficult to implement - especially when there are no sources in the place of ignition where you can replenish stocks. Another problem arises if they are far from the flaming object. The low temperature of the air in the winter and cold months can also become an obstacle. Like a strong wind. Also, quenching becomes difficult, if the night reigns in the yard. But one of the most serious cases is fires that occurred in those places where there are explosive, radioactive and accidentally-chemical poisoning substances.

Conditions can be different. In particularly difficult situations, the personnel should show great restraint, selflessness, ingenuity, efficiency and fearlessness. And also an excellent knowledge of fire-technical equipment.

First actions

Now it is worth mentioning the peculiarities of extinguishing fires with a lack of water. First of all, the chief of logistics should notify the management that there is no necessary quantity of liquid. The superior should know that the originally adopted plan for eliminating the burning will be changed.

After this, the personnel takes measures to find additional sources of water. The search involves local workers, ordinary citizens, the police. In this case, an emergency reconnaissance (site survey) must be carried out. To speed up the process, a geographic map is used. And everything should be done as quickly as possible. After all, the fire continues to destroy everything that meets in its path, and every second counts.

Preparatory measures

If it is necessary to extinguish fires with a lack of water, several other important factors need to be taken into account. And focus on them, carrying out the above actions.

When deciding on how to ensure a stable supply of water to an object of ignition, you need to know (at least approximately) how large the water supply is near the scene. Also what is the distance from the source of the liquid to the fire. The specificity of the relief is also taken into account. And the state of travel to the source of water should also be taken into account. To him should lead a clear, unhindered path. Otherwise the situation will become even more complicated.

If there are reservoirs of filled sources in the place of ignition, then the chief is obliged to organize the supply of water in them. Permutation permutation pump motor pump. Only preliminary it is necessary to prepare the sleeve lines.

If the water supply network is very weak pressure, which can not be increased, it is necessary to install hydraulic fire pumps on the hydrants. There is another option. Wells hydrants can be used as intermediate tanks with the intake of liquid from them. Quite often this is how the fires are extinguished when there is not enough water.

The organization of pumping water supply and construction of temporary piers and liquid tanks is also permitted. This practice was observed in the elimination of complex and prolonged fires.

Other ways to solve the problem

Above, only a few variants have been listed, through the use of which firefighting can be extinguished with a lack of water. The methodological plan in such cases is inappropriate, since the situation is unpredictable. However, the reserve version of the personnel should always be.

Even before arriving at the site it is necessary to find out whether there is any open reservoir there. It can be a pond, a lake, a river or a canal. One important condition is the high location of the water horizon. And good access to the source. In the event that the horizon is low, and it is impossible to get to the reservoir, the chief organizes water abstraction with the help of motor pumps, ejectors and hydroelevators.

It happens that the supply of liquid can not be carried out by trunk lines. There is no appropriate equipment or fire hoses, for example. In this case, it is necessary to organize the delivery of water in tanks. Milkmen, petrol tankers, watering machines are attracted - all the means adapted for this.

What else should I consider?

In the work of rescuers, it is extremely important to extinguish fires with a lack of water. The main task of each of them is to ensure uninterrupted supply of liquid. For this, any technique can be used - the station of auto-pumps, river and sea vessels, and even fire-fighting trains.

It is very important to organize a timely connection with the water supply services of the city / settlement. You can request plans and drawings of networks. If the head in the water pipes is too weak, additional pumps must be put into operation or the supply of liquid in other areas must be disconnected in order to direct the maximum amount to liquidate the source of ignition. So it usually happens that fires are extinguished when there is not enough water.

The organization of water supply is important, but the personnel, extinguishing the hearth, should save it. That's why you need to use barrels with sprayers and sprays of small diameter. And still, if there are internal fire-fighting cranes, then they will be used first of all.

Liquidation of the focus without fluid

So, above it was told about how firefighting is extinguished when there is not enough water. Briefly it is necessary to talk and about liquidation of ignition without application of a liquid.

Powder fire extinguishing is now actively used . These are modular installations that are versatile. They are used to eliminate fire of any class. But there are also drawbacks. The disadvantages are the low degree of penetration of the substance, because of which the rate of localization and efficiency is reduced. Visibility is also deteriorating - moving around the site and the terrain is complicated. And the most important disadvantage is that the powder effect causes huge damage to property.

In this regard, better gas systems. They do not harm property. Usually used in museums, libraries, research institutes and even in server rooms. The option is economical. In addition, using it, you can put out the fire without switching off the electricity.

And still use aerosol systems, harmless to humans, and foam.

Elimination of ignition in winter

A couple of words worth mentioning about the extinguishing of fires with a lack of water at low temperatures. It is clear to everyone that the complexities of the personnel in this situation arise.

If the yard is -10 ° C or lower, the fire equipment may fail. Of course, you can resume work, but precious seconds pass to it. Therefore, in this case, in order to avoid the failure of equipment, it is necessary to use fire trunks with a large flow of liquid. Sleeve connection heads must be protected by everything, even by snow, even if it is possible. Branches, if they are laid from the outside, it is necessary to insulate. But it's better to lay them indoors, inside the building.

Also it is impossible to admit overlapping of sleeve branches or fire trunks. And, even more so, the disconnection of pumps. It is also important to determine the places where the tanks can be filled with hot or at least warm water. It can also be used for heating frozen sleeves in places of folds.

When is the fluid contraindicated?

Well, how the fires are extinguished with a lack of water, it is understandable. Now - a couple of words about when to use liquid is contraindicated.

Water can not extinguish any burning products - be it kerosene, napalm or gasoline. If you pour it on them, the substance, continuing to blaze, simply floats up (as it is easier) and spreads, spreading fire over a larger area.

Electric installations that are under tension can not be extinguished with water. The liquid is an excellent electrical conductor. Which, when exposed to such an installation, can kill a person, if he inadvertently comes into contact with it (stepping into a puddle).

And still flooded with water is prohibited substances that come into contact with it, which entails the release of explosive gases. It is quicklime, calcium carbide and much more.


Finally - a little about what actions need to be taken in case of fire. The first thing you need to call fire brigade and help get out on the streets to those who do it yourself is difficult - for elderly people, invalids, children and animals (about smaller brothers can not be forgotten). It is also necessary to disconnect the gas supply and electrical appliances from the network. If you can not extinguish the hearth with improvised means, you must leave the room and close the door. But do not lock it with a key. It is advisable to pour the door with cold water and lay all sorts of crevices with a wet cloth.

And, most importantly - a minimum of panic. In an emergency, a cold mind is important. Emotions only interfere with the actions.

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