A fairly common disease that often accompanies infertility is external endometriosis. The main method of diagnosis and treatment of this pathology is laparoscopy. After this intervention, pregnancy occurs more often.
With external endometriosis cells of the uterine mucosa appear on the peritoneum, fallopian tubes, ovaries, intestines. They have receptors for progesterone and estrogens, so they are susceptible to changes throughout the cycle, and are rejected during menstruation.
However, since the affected organs are not adapted to this, there is inflammation, hemorrhage and edema of nearby tissues. With each menses the process progresses, the organs increase in size, their functioning is disrupted, and there are spikes between them.
External endometriosis usually manifests itself as pelvic pains that increase during menstruation, and infertility. In addition, the patient may experience painful sensations during sex and examination on a gynecological chair. With the germination of endometriosis in the intestine and bladder, soreness and bloody discharge occur during defecation and urination.
Scientists do not yet know exactly why external genital endometriosis occurs . There are several theories about this. One of them suggests its appearance when menstrual flow into the tubes and abdominal cavity. Endometrial cells are introduced into the mucous membranes of organs, and endometriosis occurs.
However, experiments have shown that not always throwing menstrual flow into the abdominal cavity leads to endometriosis. Therefore, it is believed that the disease appears with predisposing factors. The main ones are hormonal and immune disorders, as well as stress.
An external endometriosis gynecologist may be suspected when examining and questioning a patient. Ultrasound shows the disease in a common process, when there are ovarian cysts. The main method of diagnosing external endometriosis is laparoscopy.
This endoscopic procedure involves only a few small incisions. Through them, tools are introduced, including an optical device. The doctor examines the organs, and if they find endometriosis foci and adhesions, they remove them. This surgical intervention is the main way to treat the disease. Hormonal therapy is prescribed sooner with preventive and preparatory purposes.
After laparoscopy, the percentage of pregnancies is very high. If within two years after the intervention conception does not occur, then the second operation is not effective.
Quite often, patients are offered to resort to reproductive technologies after the operation. This significantly increases the likelihood of pregnancy.
In the treatment of endometriosis hormone therapy is also used. Apply COC, gestagens and drugs causing an artificial menopause. They should be selected by a gynecologist-endocrinologist, taking into account the severity of the disease, the patient's plans, concomitant pathologies.
Most often with ultrasound, endometriosis of the ovary is detected, the treatment of which is carried out mainly surgically by laparoscopy. Since only hormone therapy with large cysts is not effective.
Diagnostic laparoscopy is performed with infertility and pelvic pain. The method of treatment is chosen by the doctor. Quite often surgery is combined with hormone therapy. And it is carried out both before and after the operation.
Sometimes, with a slight endometriosis, the doctor tries to get by only taking hormones. However, studies show that this affects little on fertility , although it removes the remaining symptoms.
Thus, external endometriosis often leads to infertility and pelvic pain. The main method of its diagnosis and treatment is laparoscopy. Also to combat it hormonal therapy is used, which should be selected individually by a gynecologist-endocrinologist.