Evolution is a biological factor. It concerns all changes in the system of living organisms that occurred during the life of our planet. All manifestations of evolution occur under the influence of certain factors. Which of them have the greatest impact, and how does it manifest itself? Consider the main factors of evolution.
1. One of them is heredity. This is the ability to copy from generation to generation some properties of the body that relate to metabolism or other characteristics of individual development in general. This directing factor of evolution is realized due to self-reproduction of units of genes that accumulate in the structure of the cell nucleus, namely, in chromosomes and cytoplasm. These genes are crucial in ensuring the permanence and species diversity of various life forms. Heredity is considered the main factor, which is the foundation of the evolution of all living nature.
2. Variability, as opposed to the first factor, is a manifestation in living organisms of various attributes and properties that do not depend on family ties. This property is typical for all individuals. It is divided into the following categories: hereditary and non-hereditary, group and individual, directed and non-directional, qualitative and quantitative. Hereditary variability is a consequence of mutations, and non-hereditary - the influence of the external environment. The factors of evolution, heredity and variability can be called determinative in this process.
3. The struggle for existence. It determines the relationship between living organisms or the influence of abiotic symptoms on them. As a result of this process, organisms that are weaker die. Remain those that have higher viability.
4. Natural selection. It is a consequence of the previous factor. This is the process by which the strongest individuals survive. The essence of natural selection lies in the transformation of populations. As a result, new species of living organisms appear. It can be called one of the engines of evolution. Like many other factors of evolution, it was discovered by Charles Darwin.
5. Adaptability. This includes the features of the structure of the body, coloring, manners of behavior, ways of rearing the offspring and much more. These factors are very many, so they have not yet been fully explored.
6. Population waves. The essence of this factor is a certain fluctuation in the number of certain species of living organisms. As a result, a rare species can become more numerous and vice versa.
7. Isolation. It implies the appearance of obstacles to the spread of living organisms and their crossing. There may be different reasons for its occurrence: mechanical, ecological, territorial, morphological, genetic, etc. One of the main reasons is often an increase in the differences between previously close organisms.
8. Mutations. These environmental factors may occur under the influence of natural or artificial symptoms. When changes are made to the genetic nature of the organism, mutational changes occur. This factor underlies the hereditary changes.
9. Drift of the genes. There are situations when the population size is sharply reduced. This can occur under the influence of various circumstances (flood, fire). The remaining representatives of living organisms become the defining link in the formation of new populations. As a result, some signs of this species may disappear and new ones may appear.
Human development went its way. But the factors of human evolution are similar to those described above.