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Do the man's surnames bow in Russian? Do foreign male surnames bend?

From school, many have learned the rule that when pronouncing and writing, women's surnames are not inclined with cases, and masculine - on the contrary, as analogous adjectives or nouns. Is it all simple, and whether the male foreign names are inclined in Russian - this is the subject of this article, based on the monograph of L.P. Kalakutsk, published in 1984.

Importance of the problem

There are many situations in which a competent spelling and correct pronunciation of surnames in different cases is very important:

  • The child began to study at school, and he needs to sign a notebook or diary correctly.
  • A young man or an adult man is awarded a diploma or a letter of thanks.
  • At a serious event, they announce the appearance or appearance of a man with a complicated surname. It is unpleasant if it is distorted.
  • When drawing up important documents (certificate, diploma) or preparing case materials for establishing family ties (in court, at a notary).
  • Know whether the male names are inclined, it is necessary for people of many professions dealing with the design of personal files or other business papers.

Russian surnames

The most common surnames in Russia - with suffixes - sk (-kk), os (-ev), in (-yn) : Razumovsky, Slutsky, Ivanov, Turgenev, Mukhin, Sinitsyn. All of them easily lean, like ordinary adjectives, in both the female and the masculine. The exception is the surnames in -ov, -in , the ending of which in the prepositional case differs from the traditional one.

Foreign surnames with the suffix -in (-in) also have a mismatch with the Russians in the instrumental case. Consider the example:

Adjective Russian surname Foreign surname

Instrumental case

(By whom?)

Fathers ym

Mother's Day

Petrov ym

Kuprin yim



(About who about what?)

About fathers

O my mother

About Petrov e

About Kuprin

About Darwin

Do the male surnames bend over-without the suffix- sk , which also occur in Russia (Tolstoy, Berezhnaya, Sukhoi)? A few (in scientific works on philology there is a complete list of them), they easily change by case like the adjectives with a similar ending.

Ukrainian surnames

The most famous Ukrainian surnames are -enko and -ko : Bondarenko, Luchko, Molodyko. If you look at Russian literature, then in the works of art (AP Chekhov, for example), the writers quite freely treat their writing in the male version and in the plural: "Let's go visit the Bondarenkas".

This is not true, because official writing differs from artistic works and colloquial speech. The answer to the question is whether the Ukrainian male surnames are inclined to nenenko and -ko , unambiguous - no. Example:

  • I'm writing a letter to Oleg Bondarenko.
  • She has an affair with Ivan Luchko.

And this applies to all surnames of Ukrainian origin, even so rare as Alekhno, Rushailo, Soap, Tolokno. Never declare the last names in -ago, -you, -yago : Vodolago, Durnovo, Dubyago. And what about the ones that end in consonants?

The surname of the consonant is k

Historically, the suffixes -uk (-yuk) pointed to either a related or a semantic affiliation: Ivan's son-Ivanchuk, Cooper's assistant-Bondarchuk. To a greater extent, they are inherent in the western part of Ukraine, but are widely distributed among all Slavic peoples. Do the male surnames bend in?

According to the laws of the Russian language, women's surnames do not change by case, but men's ones ending in consonants (exception-ending in -ih, -yh) tend to necessarily:

  • I wrote a letter to Olga Dimitryuk.
  • I was invited to visit Igor Shevchuk.
  • I recently saw Sergei Ignatyuk.

Subject to change by case and all the surnames expressed by the nouns: Mole, Wolf, Wind, Pillar. There is one subtlety here: if the name is Slavic, then the available vowel in the root is not always preserved. In the jurisdiction it is important to prescribe it, although many sources do not consider the pronunciation to be wrong without it. As an example, you can consider the name Zayats. It is more often pronounced: "She called Ivan the Hare". This is permissible, but more correctly: "She called Ivan the Hare."

Distributed in Ukraine and the surname on -ok, -ik : Pochinok, Gorelik. Knowing the rule that all male surnames with a consonant letter at the end vary in case, it is easy to answer the question: do male surnames tend to -k:

  • She came to the house of Ilya Pochinka (here the vowel disappears).
  • He knew Larissa Petrik well .

An exception to the rule

Slavs often have family endings on -ih (-hyh) : Black, Ilinsky. In the first half of the 20th century, male surnames with similar endings often changed by cases. Today, according to the norms of the Russian language, this is wrong.

The origin of these surnames from the adjective plural requires the preservation of their individuality:

  • He greeted Peter Bely .

Although there is a consonant sound at the end, this is an exception to the rule that you need to know when answering the question of whether the male names are inclined.

Quite a large spread has an ending at -h : Stojkovic, Rabinovich, Gorbach. Here is the general rule:

  • Waiting for a visit to Semyon Rabinovich.
  • An exhibition of Anna Porhach liked him very much.

Armenian surnames

Armenia is a small country whose population barely exceeds 3 million people. But about 8.5 million representatives of the diaspora live in other countries, therefore, Armenian surnames are very widespread. They can often be identified by the traditional ending - en (-yann) : Avjan, Dzhigarkhanyan. In ancient times there was a more archaic family form: -anz (-yans), -unz , which is still widespread in southern Armenia: Kurants, Sarkisyants, Tonunts. Does the Armenian man's name bend?

It is subject to the rules of the Russian language, which have already been mentioned in the article. Male surnames with consonant at the end, subject to declension by case:

  • Together with Armen Avzhan ( "together with Anush Avjan");
  • Watched the film with George Tonunts ( with the "film with Lily Tonunts").

Ending on Vowels

The male surnames remain unchanged if they, regardless of their origin and belonging to one or another country, end in the following vowels: and, u, y, w, e, e. Example: Gandhi, Jusoyty, Shoigu, Camus, Meghre, Manet. In this case, it does not matter at all, the stress on the first or the last syllable is stressed. This includes Moldovan, Indian, French, Georgian, Italian and Turkic names. Example: " Recently he read the poems of Shota Rustaveli ." But are the male names leaning towards - and (I) ?

Here there are both options, so it's better to present them in the table:

Declare Do not decline
The letters -a (-i) are not stressed

The last letters follow the consonants: Pye ha, Kaf ka .

  • He went to the concert of Stas Pyekha.
  • She was a fan of Franz Kafka .

If the last letters follow the vowel - and : Moraa , Garsia .

  • He loved listening to the orchestra of Paul Moriah.
  • He met with football player Raul Garcia.
The letters -a (-i) are under stress

The last letters follow after the consonants, but they have Slavic roots: Vine, Mitta.

  • Yuri Loza has a wonderful song "Raft".
  • I admire the director Alexander Mitta.

The last letters follow consonants or vowels and are of French origin: Dumas, Benoit, Delacroix, Zola.

  • She was friends with Alexander Dumas.
  • He began painting with Eugene Delacroix.

To consolidate knowledge, whether the male names are inclined to - a , offer you an algorithm that can be always at hand.

German surnames

The origin of German surnames is similar to their history in other states: the majority is derived from personal names, geographical names, nicknames or occupation of their bearers.

The settlement of the Volga region by the Germans in the 18th century led to the fact that their writing in Russia was often carried out with errors, so many similar names with discrepancies in one or two letters. But in fact, all of them, with rare exceptions, end in a consonant, so when answering the question whether the male German surnames are inclined, it is possible to state with certainty: yes. Exceptions are: Goethe, Heine, Otto and others, ending with a vowel letter.

Since German surnames vary in case, they should be distinguished from Slavic. In addition to the common ones, such as Müller, Hoffman, Wittgenstein, Wolf, there are ending in -ih : Dietrich, Freindlich, Ulrich. In Russian surnames, in front of them, there are rarely soft consonants with solid pairs. This is because in the language there are almost no adjectives with similar fundamentals. Slavic surnames, unlike German ones, do not lean (Fifth, Borovsky).

If at the end of -b or -y

The rule according to which the male surnames are inclined, having as a basis consonants without an ending, extends also to those cases when the end is put -y or -y . They change with cases as nouns related to the second declension. However, in the instrumental case they have a special ending - ohm (em) . They are perceived as foreign. To answer the question whether the male names are inclined to -y and -y, an example should be considered:

  • Nominative (who?): Vrubel, Gaidai;
  • Genitive (of whom?): Vrubel, Gaidai;
  • Datelny (to whom?): Vrubel, Gaidai;
  • Accusative (of whom?): Vrubel, Gaidai;
  • The instrumental (by whom?): Vrubel, Gayday;
  • Proposal (about whom?): About Vrubel, about Gayday.

There are exceptions to the rule. So, do not bow discordant surnames (Pelmen), and also coincide with the geographical name (Uruguay, Taiwan). Even if the soft sign stands after hissing (Night, Mouse), the surname is inclined according to the male variant.

Double and composite surnames

China, Vietnam and Korea are distinguished by the fact that their inhabitants have compound names that consist of several words. If they end in a consonant, they tend according to general rules, but only their last part. Example:

  • We listened to Kim Jong Il's speech .

Russian double surnames tend to be in both parts according to general rules:

  • Picture of Petrov-Vodkin;
  • Theater of Nemirovich-Danchenko.

If the first part is not a surname, but serves as an integral part, it does not change by case:

  • Ter-Hovhannisyan's leap;
  • The work of Demuth-Malinovsky .

If the male surnames of other foreign states are inclined, depends entirely on the rules of Russian grammar, which were mentioned in the article. The issue of using a plural or singular number in the enumeration of two persons remained unexplained.

Single and plural

In what cases is the plural used, and in which singular is the best seen from the table:


Two male names:

Alexey and Andrei Chadovy

Mention of husband and wife:

Husband and wife Zvenigorodskiye

Mention of father and son:

Father and son Wagner


Two female names:

Olga and Tatiana Kim

Mention of female and male names:

Xenia and Maxim Vitorgan

Mention of spouses:

Merkel's wife

Mention of Brother and Sister:

Brother and sister Wittgenstein

Male surnames, unlike women's, tend, but there are many cases considered in the article, when they are also not subject to change. The main criteria are the ending of the word and the country of origin of the surname.

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