Have you ever caught yourself saying that, for example, in the morning a certain line from the song "got attached" to you, and you constantly mentally humming it? Or for some reason feel the urgent need to remember the name of the film actor who flashed on the screen? And did you suffer from the experience during the whole working day: "Horror! It seems that the water in the bathroom is not turned off! "?
Here are the same or similar thoughts are literally taken prisoner by some people, delivering them a lot of trouble. In medicine, this state has its name - obsessive-cumulative disorder, or neurosis.
About what neurosis is and how to deal with it, we'll talk further in the article.
The causes of the appearance of obsessive-compulsive disorder
The appearance of this disease is attributed to genetic predisposition. Explaining this by saying that, perhaps, to our distant ancestors, compulsive behavior gave some advantages. For example, caution, keeping clean and constant readiness to meet with the enemy allowed people to survive, leaving a tendency in the genes for this particular psyche.
Scientists have proved that in people with a named diagnosis in the collection of an anamnesis, as a rule, relatives are found, in whom such conditions are observed. This applies in the first place to those patients who have neurosis appeared in childhood. Nevertheless, in modern world medicine there is no unequivocal answer to the question of why some people develop this neurosis.
What is the state can provoke? We'll talk about this a little later, but for now, let's name who is at risk.
Who most often develops a neurosis
Psychiatrists believe that the aforementioned illness most often develops in individuals of a certain psycho-emotional storehouse. As a rule, these are shy and indecisive people, only in their fantasies are capable of performing any meaningful actions.
The neurosis of compulsive states, the causes of which we are considering, develops on the background of the fact that they diligently avoid the realities of life, requiring the adoption of strong-willed decision or serious actions, since such things simply can not bear them. As a result, people with the named character warehouse gradually "go into themselves," obsessing on their own experiences and feelings, which eventually supplant all other interests and turn into painful obsessions.
Neurosis: what is the obessia
Obsessions or ideas are, in a different way, obsessions. They, as already mentioned above, manifest themselves against the will of the patient and do not succumb to his attempts to get rid of a constant sense of anxiety or absurd, but ineradicable thoughts. It can be, for example, reflections on why the seen bird is gray, or where exactly the counter passer-by went.
The patient, as a rule, realizes their uselessness and senselessness, but nothing can be done about it. Such thoughts do not leave him even for a minute - in fact, this is the expression of the neurosis of obsessive states. Symptoms, treatment of this ailment has long been a subject of study of specialists in the field of medicine. Later we will discuss what the doctors came to.
Degrees of manifestation of obsessions
In medicine, it is customary to distinguish the degrees of obsessions in terms of brightness and clarity. That is, a person with relatively vague obsessions can constantly feel the causeless tension, anxiety or confusion that generates in him the common belief that there is nothing good in life.
And more vivid obsessions lead to the fact that the neurosis of compulsive states (what it is, hopefully, you become clearer) outgrows, for example, into the belief that higher forces are determined to harm not only the bearer of these thoughts, but also his relatives.
Some patients may even experience sexual obsession, imagining sexual relations or only caressing with strangers, and sometimes close people (relatives), children or even animals. This can cause the patient to fear and doubt their own "normal", sexual orientation, self-criticism and even self-hatred.
Signs of the appearance of a neurosis
So, we have almost figured out what neurosis is. And its symptoms, and methods of therapy, of course, are of interest to modern people, which, however, is not surprising, because the current rhythm of life provokes the appearance of many, including neurological ailments and pathologies. How to know, maybe some manifestations of the disease already have a place to be, and they need to be combated. And is there any way to avoid such a state? First, we should pay attention to the fact that such patients are always well aware of the artificiality and unreality of their ideas, but at the same time they have an acute need to act in this way, and not otherwise.
The clinical picture of the disease, as a rule, is limited to the presence of compulsive symptoms, while the volume of consciousness and the degree of critical attitude of the patient remain normal. The above signs of neurosis are usually joined by the inability to concentrate, fatigue, increased irritability and sleep disturbances.
The listed symptoms manifest themselves with varying intensity, but in the mood of the patient, nevertheless, there is an obvious shade of hopelessness and an acute sense of inferiority.
Specialists consider 3 types of disease course:
- A single attack, which can last for a week, or several years.
- Relapses, including periods of complete absence of signs of the disease.
- Continuous course of the disease, accompanied by an increase in her symptoms.
Neurosis: what is compulsions
Obsessive thoughts, doubts and memories are, by the way, rather rare symptoms, as well as obsessive movements or actions.
The most common type of such actions are rituals, called compulsions. It is with their help that the patient tries to ease his condition and avoid that frightening event, the thought of which causes endless experiences.
So, a person, to free himself from the constant fear of getting infected with any infection, comes up with a ritual in the form of washing hands with a certain amount of soaping. At the same time he thinks loudly, but after getting lost, he starts all over again. Or, to get rid of obsessive thoughts about the unlocked front door, before leaving home, the number of times pulls the door handle.
By the way, often such rituals are also an absurd character, manifested in the form of pulling out of hair, biting nails, unfolding objects in strict order, etc.
Why rituals become a trap for a patient with neurosis?
Obsessive actions are designed to instill confidence in a patient suffering from exhausting doubts, although they usually do not cope with this task. After all, if you remember what neurosis and its symptoms are, it becomes clear that compulsions giving a false sense of control over what is happening can not get rid of obsession (obsessive thoughts).
Instead, they entice the patient into a kind of trap. Trying to get relief, a person complicates the ritual, and as doubts remain, he adds more and more details to him, gradually turning his life and the lives of others into a kind of theater of the absurd.
How is neurosis manifested in children
Almost a third of the patients claim that the pathology we are considering has appeared at an early age.
By the way, the neurosis of compulsive states in children has a reversible character. He does not distort the perception of the world, and parents often do not pay attention to these deviations, believing that with age everything will pass by itself.
As a rule, in small patients the disease manifests itself in the form of obsessive movements. It can be a wrinkling of the forehead, a tick, a twitching of the shoulders, snorting, sniffing, coughing, etc. To the listed symptoms, there is often a feeling of fear, for example, in front of a closed or empty room. Children are afraid to get dirty, get pricked, hit, etc.
How do children develop obsessive-compulsive disorder?
The neurosis of compulsive states in children and adolescents can provoke the characteristics of upbringing in the family. If, for example, for the same actions a child can both punish and encourage (everything depends on the mood of the parents), then he simply can not develop a certain stereotype of behavior. And unpredictability often becomes a stimulus for a constant sense of anxiety and uncertainty about the correctness of one's actions, demanding an exit.
An attempt to foresee the reaction of parents often causes the child to invent rituals and seek his own way of protecting himself.
The same problem can occur in families where parents are divorced or who are seriously ill. This often leads to the fact that the house is becoming oppressive. The child, as a rule, is not told about what is happening, but he feels something wrong, and this worries him, frightens him and eventually forces him to seek salvation in compulsions.
Features of treatment of neuroses in children and adolescents
There are certain difficulties in treating children diagnosed with neurosis. That such a condition requires practically the same treatment for both children and adults is understandable, but the age of the child often creates additional problems.
Most of the children are unable to identify and formulate their fears. They can not explain what makes them perform some rituals. In many cases, they refuse to admit that their fears are too exaggerated and irrational. Moreover, they believe that all their troubling thoughts will come to life if they are told about someone.
And adolescents are completely ashamed even of the idea of sharing experiences with the therapist, and all because of the fear of recognizing themselves as inferior and being the object of ridicule of peers. Therefore, competence and ability to work with children are the main criteria when choosing a doctor.
Getting rid of neurosis with the help of exposition psychotherapy
The first question that arises in patients with a diagnosis of "obsessive-compulsive disorder": how to get rid of? Reviews of relatives, and the patients themselves tell about different ways of fighting this disease. Quite often people praise the method of exposition psychotherapy.
It implies the possibility of reducing the patient's fears in the event of frequent and (notice!) Correct immersion in a painful situation. For example, if the patient is afraid of infection, he is offered to hold onto the handrails of the general ladder, and then do not wash his hands. And to get rid of worrying doubts about whether the door is locked, leave the house without checking it.
It is very difficult to commit such actions to a patient. But they allow patients to understand and make sure that the terrible consequences that they are anxiously awaiting do not come: a deadly disease from germs does not dump right there and the door and without repeated verification remains locked. Anxiety, which at first grows somewhat, eventually is overcome and passes, but this method requires the obligatory control of a specialist, as, indeed, the classical treatment of a neurosis.
Methods of therapy
The described neuroses are diseases, which in the majority require complex treatment.
To effectively get rid of the disease specialists often use a combination of medications with cognitive behavioral psychotherapy. This allows, by reducing anxiety with the help of drugs, maximize the impact of psychotherapy. This is especially true for patients who use the exposure method causes too high levels of anxiety.
By the way, it should be remembered that there are no specific drugs from the neurosis of compulsive states. And the use of sedatives alone can lead to the occurrence of side effects and the return of anxiety immediately after the cessation of such treatment.
In complex therapy, specialists prefer tranquilizers, which have a strong general effect: Napoton, Elenium, Relanium, Seduxen or Siabazon, etc. Since neurosis, unlike neurasthenia, presupposes the use of high doses Medicines, they are preferred to be administered intravenously.
But tablets (Frontin, Alprazolam, Zoldak, Neurol, etc.) have proved to be quite effective.