Bronchoectatic disease

What is bronchoectatic disease, symptoms of the disease and other issues will be discussed in this article. Bronchoectatic disease implies the presence of bronchiectasis in the lungs (pathologically altered and dilated middle and small bronchi). Expanding, in shape they resemble cylinders. In an altered bronchial tree, there is almost always an element of inflammation. The pathological process is usually localized in the middle and lower lobes of the lungs.

Bronchoectatic disease is the end result of a congenital anomaly of the bronchial structures (insufficiency of cartilaginous bronchial tissue, fibrosis, Kartagener's syndrome), severe pneumonia or bronchitis, which were transferred in early childhood. The cause of the disease can be a decrease in the protective reaction of the bronchial tree and the immune system (deficiency of gamma globulin and phagocytic activity, etc.), as well as other diseases in severe form.

Bronchoectatic disease is inherently primary and secondary. The cause of primary deformation of the bronchi is usually the congenital malformation of the tissue, which leads to thickening of the bronchial membranes. There is a violation of the evacuation of sputum and, as a consequence, the attachment of a secondary infection. Secondary deformation arises from any violation of the drainage function of the bronchi (functional or organic). Present chronic chronic inflammation, causes cicatrical changes in the walls of the bronchi.

Bronchoectatic disease manifests itself in a frequent cough with the discharge of purulent sputum. Sometimes, in adults, bronchiectasis is exacerbated by hemoptysis. You can listen to hard breathing, with an exacerbation of rales of a wet character. Due to poor gas exchange in the pulmonary wall, the patient is in constant hypoxia. One of its characteristic external manifestations is the change of fingers in the form of tympanic sticks and nail plates. They resemble watch glass.

In the formulation of the diagnosis, the examination of the patient helps, the collection of complaints. On the x-ray picture of the chest, cylindrical cavities, atelectasis and a decrease in lung size are visible. At an exacerbation the infiltration of a tissue is visible. Modern methods of diagnosis can accurately determine the disease and location of the pathological process. These methods include computed tomography, performing bronchography with contrasting. It is used to clarify the prevalence of the process and determine the tactics of medical or surgical treatment.

Bronchoectatic disease, treatment and disease prognosis

Treatment of the disease depends on the prevalence of the process, the frequency and severity of exacerbations. The goal of drug treatment is to normalize or improve the drainage function. For this, bronchodilators are used. They have a rapid dilation effect, eliminating breathlessness and asthma attacks, normalizing gas exchange. Bronchodilators are used in the form of aerosols for inhalation. Appointed expectorant drugs. It is important for a patient to avoid overcooling, heavy loads, exposure to allergens and infections. Outside exacerbation, respiratory gymnastics is mandatory. There is a whole complex of exercises that strengthen the body, respiratory muscles, improves blood circulation and activates metabolism. The massage of the chest area with effleurage (postural drainage) contributes to better drainage. When exacerbated with a difficult departure, sputum perform bronchial sanitation with a bronchoscope. Exacerbations are treated in a hospital setting.
With extensive damage to several segments or lobe, hypoxia, surgical treatment is indicated. It is also performed with limited bronchiectasis and a young age.

The course of the disease with proper treatment, timely operation and the rehabilitation of cavities, in most cases, has a favorable prognosis.

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