Hepatosis of the liver is a disease that manifests itself in the dystrophy of the liver tissue (parenchyma), without a bright cellular reaction. According to its origin and flow, the disease is acute and chronic. Hepatosis of the liver, which has a chronic course, is cholestatic and fat.
The acute form of hepatosis develops under the influence of toxic substances and poisonings of various genesis. It can be poisoning with surrogates of alcohol, heavy metals, phosphorus, medical preparations, poisonous plants, fungi, etc. This form of the disease is also called yellow atrophy of the liver. In rare cases, acute hepatosis of the liver develops due to existing hepatitis or sepsis of infectious etiology.
The very name of the disease, says that it has an acute beginning. Initially, there are signs of dyspepsia (nausea, vomiting) and signs of intoxication. The patient feels "broken", body aches, pains in the muscles, complains of a fever. A little later, jaundice appears. The liver is slightly enlarged in size, then its dimensions contract and it is not palpable. Increased liver enzymes (ALT, AST), blood glucose. When histological examination of the organ tissue, fatty degeneration is noted. Severe course of the disease can be combined with liver failure with a transition to a coma, a violation of blood coagulability and increased bleeding.
Patients with acute form of hepatosis are subject to mandatory hospitalization in the hospital. The success of further treatment largely depends on how quickly treatment is started and the flow of toxins to the liver is stopped. To do this, wash the stomach and intestines. With bleeding, freshly frozen plasma is poured, albumin, if necessary erythrocytic mass. Infusion therapy with glucose solution, saline solutions with the addition of potassium, vitamin B, folic acid. In severe cases, plasmapheresis and hemodialysis may be required.
Chronic fatty liver hepatosis is manifested by fatty liver cell dystrophy. This form of the disease has a prolonged course and alternates with periods of exacerbation and relative calm of the disease. The cause of fatty degeneration is mainly chronic alcoholism. In rare cases, it occurs against the background of long-term exposure to hepatotoxic substances in the workplace. Concomitant serious illnesses, such as diabetes or metabolic disorders, can also cause hepatosis. Symptoms of the disease manifest constant weakness, aching pain in the liver. The organ can be slightly enlarged in size, with palpation there is soreness. The spleen does not increase. Jaundice, as a rule, does not happen or there is a small icteric sclera and skin. In the blood, liver enzymes and cholesterol are moderately raised.
With the termination of toxic effects on the body, the refusal of alcohol may complete recovery. Protein should predominate in the patient's diet. Limit the intake of fat in the body. Gepatoprotectors and multivitamins are prescribed.
The next type of chronic form of the disease is cholestatic liver hepatosis. Symptoms of it are expressed by the delay of the hepatic bile and the accumulation of pigment in the liver cells. In this case, hepatocytes are subjected to protein dystrophy. This disease develops as a result of toxic effects of chemicals and medications. At the same time, metabolic disturbances occur in the liver, formation and a normal outflow of bile are disrupted.
The disease is manifested by severe jaundice, clarification of feces and darkening of urine. The liver is usually always enlarged in size. In the blood, bilirubin, enzymes, phosphatase and cholesterol are increased. Treatment of this form of hepatosis is about the same as with fatty form, except that corticosteroids are used in therapy.
Prevention of all forms of hepatosis is proper nutrition, refraining from systematic use of alcohol, occupational health, especially in harmful production, and, of course, systematic medical examination in risk groups.