Every person, especially women, wants to be beautiful. But, unfortunately, life rarely passes without injuries and illnesses, after which ugly scars remain, or, in scientific terms, atrophic scars. How to get rid of this unpleasant cosmetic defect? Now so many ways are offered, and everything, if you believe advertising, is unique. Which one is really effective? Which one to choose, so as not to waste money and not waste time? Let's try to understand.
What is atrophic scars
Everyone knows what a scar is, but not everyone understands the word "atrophic". It means that the scar is located below the plane of the skin, as if sinking. There are also hypertrophic scars, which, on the contrary, protrude beyond the skin. In the first case, a new tissue is formed less in place of the destroyed (due to this, and sinking), and in the second case, more, so it appears. In addition to a cosmetic defect, atrophic scars have reduced functional properties. So, they are more sensitive to ultraviolet radiation (they are worse tolerated by direct sun rays), hair growth and sweat glands work on damaged areas .
Appear atrophic scars can with any destruction of collagen fibers of the skin. Main reasons:
- Trauma with violation of the integrity of the skin (cut, burn, injury);
- Infectious diseases (acne, furuncles, chicken pox);
- Microdamage of the subcutaneous layer of the dermis without external incisions (stretch marks).
Mechanism of scar appearance
In cases of mechanical damage to the skin, the body starts the system of their recovery, sending a lot of structures and cells to the problem site. Thrombocytes, lymphocytes, macrophages, leukocytes, fibroblasts immediately go there. Each of them performs its function, as a result of which the wound is delayed. Almost immediately coming to their destination, leukocytes begin to release special cytokine substances that control the creation of the matrix and form future atrophic scars. Fibroblasts also from the first hours after injury produce collagen, which is the basis of the extracellular matrix. Collagen fibers at the site of destruction are intertwined, modified, and a number of other complex processes occur. As a result, the wound heals, and in its place a scar appears.
In the case of acne, the activity of the sebaceous glands is disrupted, and an increased amount of sebum begins to form. In some parts of the body (face, back, less often the chest), it accumulates, which leads to the appearance of coccal infections. Inflammatory processes, as it were, melt skin cells and form pus. At the site of the dissection, there are atrophic scars.
Stretch marks on the skin can appear from large fiznagruzok, age changes, during pregnancy, from malnutrition. In any case, the reticular layer of the skin is destroyed, the collagen fibers break, and so-called subcutaneous dips are formed, outwardly having the appearance of scars of white, purple or pink.
Since atrophic scars are formed due to various causes, a treatment that can provide a visible result can not be the same for all. To date, there are such methods:
1. Surgical. Used for pronounced deep extensive scars. The method consists in excising the body of the rumen and lifting its edges with subsequent plastic.
2. Mesotherapy. It is used in subcutaneous injections of drugs that promote the synthesis of collagen. Disadvantages - painful procedure, the possibility of bruising, swelling, redness, traces of injections.
3. Dermabrasion. Used to correct deep scars after various mechanical injuries of the skin and acne. This procedure is superficial and deep, more traumatic. It is made in the polishing of the skin with microscopic crystals. Disadvantages of the method are long-term recovery of the dermis, the appearance of pigmentation.
4. Cream and ointment. The most popular and simple method.
5. Laser therapy. It is used for all types of scars. It consists in exposure to the problem area of the skin with a carbon dioxide or vascular laser. This method gives the best results. Disadvantages - there may be redness, pigmentation, in some cases the degeneration of the atrophic scar into a colloidal.
6. Chemical peeling. The purpose of the procedure is to remove the upper layer of the dermis and then replace it with a new, more tender and healthy layer. The procedure is superficial and deep, which is performed under anesthesia. Disadvantages - a long recovery of the skin, pigmentation, complications after a deep exfoliation.
Treatment of scars with ointments
To remove atrophic scars is easiest with the help of creams and ointments sold in any pharmacy. Advantages of this method:
- Universal accessibility;
- Relatively low price;
- The possibility of treatment at home;
- Ease of execution;
- Acting locally, without causing "discomfort" to the entire body;
- Absence of complications.
- Duration of treatment;
- Low effectiveness against deep and old scars.
There are means for correction of scars resorptive, softening, antibacterial, healing, stimulating the production of collagen, anti-inflammatory, bleaching, moisturizing. Gels, ointments, and creams are on sale. Many of them are used not only for correction of scars, but also as anti-inflammatory, wound-healing, sun-protective.
At the moment, pharmacies have a large selection of remedies for scarring. The most popular and effective:
1. "Kontraktubeks", the price in the range of 300-800 rubles for a tube of 25 g.
2. "Kelofibraza". The average cost is 1200-1600 rubles for a 25-gram tube. The composition includes urea, camphor, heparin sodium. The product is effective enough to correct fresh scars, helps with acne, shallow traces after acne.
3. "Kelo-Cat". The average price of a 15-gram tube is about 2500 rubles. The composition of the product includes silicones, dioxide and polysiloxane. Produced in the form of a gel, spray. According to the manufacturer, "Kelo-Cote" is effective for correcting any scars, including postoperative and burn.
4. Zeraderm. The cost of a 15-gram tube is from 3900 rubles. The composition includes silicone, vitamins, antioxidant Q10, ultraviolet filter with a degree of protection 15.
5. Dermatics. It costs from 1200 rubles for 15 grams of money. The composition includes an inert silicone. The cream is effective against any scars.
6. "Fermencol". The price is from 1000 rubles. The composition includes 9 natural collagenases of animal origin. It is used to correct any scars in the form of ointments, for phonophoresis, electrophoresis and applications.
As can be seen from the above list, this is one of the cheapest, and therefore, the most affordable means. It includes:
- Onion extract (dissolves blood clots, removes inflammation, affects the reduction of stiffness of the scar);
- Allantoin (accelerates healing, improves permeability of rumen tissues to active substances, moisturizes, renews the upper layers of the rumen);
- Heparin sodium (stops or significantly slows the growth of scar tissue, moisturizes, has anti-allergic effect).
Cream "Mederma" is very similar to "Kontraktubeks" its composition, properties, produced by the effect and price. The difference is that there is no heparin in it.
The instruction says that Kontraktubeks, the price of which allows it to be purchased by people with different incomes, copes well with scars of various nature, contracture of tendons and joints, stretch marks, is used as a preventive measure. However, according to consumers, this drug helps to clean only the freshest scars and stretch marks, and not all who use it. That is, its medicinal properties are not effective for all skin types.
Sometimes a person has such atrophic scars, ointment, gel or other simple remedies against which absolutely do not help. In recent years, laser technologies have been widely used to correct all types of such skin lesions, regardless of their size and prescription. One of them is photothermolysis. The method consists in the action of pulses of the CO 2 laser on the problem zone. As a result, fibroblasts increase the production of collagen, the scar is pulled, becomes elastic and imperceptible. Photothermolysis is ambulatory, acting more deeply and, as a consequence, causing a longer period of rehabilitation. After each procedure, and they must be at least 6, the restoration of the skin lasts up to 7 days. The second type of photothermolysis is non-amputation. It is not as traumatic, but the procedures for obtaining a visible effect should be up to 10. Photothermolysis under local or general anesthesia is carried out, depending on the location of the scar, its size and the sensitivity threshold of the client. Disadvantages:
- After the procedure, soreness, itching, redness of the skin;
- Pigmentation, peeling;
- The need to take medications after the procedure.
Dermabrasion (laser peeling)
The method consists in evaporation of scar tissue by layer with the help of an arbium or carbon dioxide laser. In cases with atrophic scars performed together with injections based on collagen. This operation is also known as laser resurfacing of scars. The price of the procedure may vary, depending on the size of the scar. In most cosmetology salons for this service ask from 900 rubles per square centimeter. Grinding is carried out at a time of year when there is no intense sunlight (winter, autumn). As a result, the production of collagen increases, regeneration occurs with the renewal of the skin. Restoration lasts at least a month. A distinctive feature of the method is its painlessness, so anesthesia is not needed. Immediately after the procedure, the skin is necessarily moisturizing and soothing. The course is designed for 5-6 sessions. The duration of each is about 40 minutes. As a result of grinding, not only scars can disappear, but also pigmentation, fine wrinkles, narrowing of the pores.