As a building material, the tree has been used since ancient times. Wooden architecture in Russia embodied a successful combination of good and beauty. Many of the building and artistic techniques that fully corresponded to the conditions of life and culture of the people were worked out by Russian architects for millennia.
The wooden architecture of Ancient Rus originated in the northern regions of the country. It was there that there were the richest coniferous and deciduous forests. On the shores of Pechora, Onega, and the Northern Dvina, unique monuments of Ancient Rus still survive. Dynasties of Russian architects for millennia honed their skills, carefully stored professional tricks and passed them on to their sons.
The northern region, long famous for its forests, has grown on its land the most talented architects, whose works we have the opportunity to admire so far.
Wood for the construction of cut not all. We chose the pine in advance, which met all the requirements of the masters, and made on the trunk of the cracks - narrow strips were removed from the bark, leaving strips to preserve sap flow. After that, the tree was left alone for five years.
During this time, she actively allocated resin, which plentifully infiltrated the trunk. Only after that, in the cold autumn, it was chopped off. Later, the old masters were not advised to chop - they would start to rot. Aspen and other deciduous trees were harvested in the spring, during sap flow. At this time, the bark was easily removed from the trunk, and the log, dried in the sun, became strong as a bone.
The wooden architecture of Ancient Rus is also unique in that, as a rule, the ax was the only tool of the master. Despite the fact that saws have been known since the tenth century, they were used only in carpentry. It was believed that the saw was tearing the wood fibers and leaving them open for water. Moreover, we tried not to use nails - around them the tree begins to deteriorate faster. If necessary, wooden crutches were used.
The basis of a wooden building in Russia was a frame - tethered logs in a quadrilateral. A number of logs were respectfully called the "crown". The lowest crown was often installed on a stone foundation - ryazh, made of powerful boulders. Thus, the house became warmer and less rot.
The architecture of Ancient Rus differed from the European one in that there were no differences in the construction of the house and the temple. The oldest and simplest form was "cage". Thus, temples and chapels were built. These are three log houses that are connected to each other and are located from west to east.
The wooden architecture of Ancient Russia begins to develop rapidly in the fifteenth century, when the first wooden bell towers appear. The oldest belfries were built on the Novgorod and Pskov lands.
It should be noted - the wooden architecture of Ancient Rus is not forgotten. Most of the monuments of this unique art are protected by the state, and in the northern regions of the country there are schools where the basis of mastery of Russian architects is transferred.