Wiring in a private house. What you need to know for self-assembly

Electric wiring in a private house can be performed on its own. This work is not complicated or out of the ordinary. But certain knowledge must still be possessed in order to avoid mistakes that can not only lead to the incorrect operation of both all communication systems and its individual elements, but also threaten the health of the inhabitants of the house.

The wiring in a private house begins first with the connection to power lines (power lines). For this purpose, a cable with aluminum conductors is used. This is due to the fact that the wires of the transmission line are made of the same material. If you use a copper cable, then when it comes into direct contact with the aluminum wires begin to oxidize. And this can lead to a power failure due to a sharp increase in the resistance of the wire connection or burnout of the input cable or, worse, the wires of the transmission lines.

The cross section of the input cable is of great importance. He, like all electrical wiring in a private house in general, must withstand all the load. Therefore, before you buy a cable, you need to calculate the required cross-section. To do this, you need to know exactly the power that all electrical appliances in the house will consume. These include: lamps, electric stove, washing and dishwasher, electric heaters and so on. For the lead-in aluminum cable, the conductor cross-section is selected according to the calculation, in which 10 square meters. Mm sections provide a load of 17 kW. Based on this ratio, you should choose a cable that will already be used to connect the shield in the house to the power line.

Next, you need to determine the number of machines in the shield and their characteristics. Wiring in a private house will be of high quality and safety only if the protective devices are properly selected . The best option is to use separate circuit breakers for each of the rooms. It is also recommended to put a separate device for automatic shutdown on appliances such as electric stove, washing machine and other appliances with high energy consumption. For such individual rooms, such as a veranda, a garage, a hallway, you can install one common machine. As for performance, there are two of them here: the permissible operating current and the short-circuit current. In the first case, the calculation is made on the basis of the cable used, i.e. the cross-section of the wires, the material and the method of laying, or it is necessary to repel the expected load power. As for the second indicator, the choice of the device is more theoretical. Existing automata have three limit values - this is 4.5 kA, 6 kA and 10 kA. This is the magnitude of the fault current at which the machine will trip and the circuit will be open. If the house is close to the electrical substation, you should select a 6 kA device. Otherwise, 4.5 kA, which are often the most suitable. As for automata with a short-circuit current of 10 kA, the need for them arises quite rarely, and they are used only if the 6 kA machine does not cope.

Lastly, the cables and electrical appliances are installed, including switches and sockets. A cable with copper conductors is most suitable when the internal wiring in a private house is being performed. Prices for it are higher than for similar aluminum, but the quality is better. Do not forget about the grounding of devices, so the use of a three-wire cable will be very appropriate. The installation can be hidden or open. With the second option, wiring in a private house is easier and faster. It is most often used in wooden houses, but it is necessary to lay the cables in additional insulation, for example corrugation or cable duct. Hidden electrical wiring is performed in stone and concrete houses and requires more physical expenses for preparatory work, since it is necessary to make channels for the cable on all the walls where it will be laid.

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