The Order of the Red Star is a reward known to everyone who is familiar with such an important and at the same time terrible event - the Great Patriotic War of 1941-45. It is very interesting, for which the Order of the Red Star is given to soldiers who distinguished themselves in battles.
Establishment of the Order of the Red Star
The award of the Order of the Red Star became state after the Plenum of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR adopted and signed the Resolution. This happened back in the 1930's far from the war.
In the future, only various adjustments were made to the provisions on what the Order of the Red Star was being given for. So, the changes were made thrice in the 40s, and the approval of the new edition of the order took place in 1980.
The Government of the Order was established to reward distinguished citizens.
Thus, the Order of the Red Star for combat services was created to reward the army and navy servicemen, as well as border guards, KGB officers and chiefs of the Internal Affairs Directorate.
For what was awarded the Order of the Red Star to the categories listed above?
- For services in the organization of security on the border of the state.
- For showing personal courage in battle, as well as for the leadership and excellent organization of the actions of subordinate servicemen, which led to success.
- For courage and courage, which were manifested during the execution of debt in a situation where there was a threat to life.
- For inflicting significant damage to the enemy by means of competent leadership of military units during the conduct of the battle.
- For a clear fulfillment of the tasks of the command and other exploits, committed, including in the conditions of peace.
- For the training of personnel for the army and navy.
- For maintaining the troops in due readiness.
- For excellent success in personal, combat and political training.
- For the development of the scientific and technical industry, which makes it possible to strengthen the country's defense capability.
The receipt of the order was carried out only on the basis of submissions from the top management of the departments: the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the KGB or the Defense Ministry.
It was supposed to be worn on the right side, after the Order of the Patriotic War II degree, if any.
How the reward looked
The Order of the Red Star was shaped like a five-pointed star and covered with a ruby-colored enamel.
In the center there is a shield on which the Red Army men are depicted wearing greatcoats and bonnets, holding rifles. On the edge of the shield you could read the inscription "Workers of all countries, unite", and at the bottom - "USSR". Under the shield there was an image of a sickle and a hammer. The edges of all elements of the award were oxidized.
For the manufacture of the Order, silver of high quality was used. For each award, more than 27 grams of metal was taken, and the weight of the order was just over 30 grams.
Its dimensions were not large. The distance between the vertices of the star was 47 or 50 cm and depended on the year in which the award was issued.
To fasten the order on the back of his side there was a pin with a thread. From the underside of the tunic, a flat nut was screwed onto the pin, holding the order on the chest.
The set included a moiré band of silk with a width of 24 mm. Along the center of the tape was a five-millimeter gray strip.
First, the order was worn on the left, but later the straps with ribbons that could be worn on the right side were introduced, and the award mark was attached to the other side.
History of the Order: the first decade
The award is the first among the Soviet and the second militant, given the time of the establishment. The authors are the sculptor Golenetsky and the artist Kupriyanov.
Its history of awarding the order takes from 1930. The first to receive it was the well-known red commander, who later became marshal of the Soviet Union, Vasily Blucher. His merit was to repel the pressure of the Chinese army on the Sino-East Railway.
After Blucher, the award was given to a group of pilots who made a long flight on airplanes created by Soviet aircraft designers. The flight route passed through Moscow, Ankara, Tiflis, Kabul and Tashkent. The final destination was again Moscow. The total length of the flight was more than 10 thousand kilometers. This is another example of what the Order of the Red Star is for.
The inventor and engineer of the military industry Kovalev, servicemen Pavlunovsky, Karutsky and others also received the Order of the Red Star. A list of those awarded a decade before the Patriotic War can be listed for a long time.
Handing the Order for heroism in the pre-war time
Test pilots who conducted flights and repair of aircraft right in the air deserved recognition, for which they received the Order of the Red Star. In this way, servicemen were rewarded, who did not perform any feats within the framework of military operations, but distinguished themselves by heroic deeds committed for the country in peacetime. A perfect example: the pilot Vykosa and navigator Yerenkov during the winter flight were able to repair the chassis fixation directly in the air. Yerenkov climbed the wing of the plane, Vykosa held him with his hands without special tools. Thanks to the courage and heroism of the pilots, the damage was eliminated, and the flight was completed successfully.
There was an experience of awarding the Order and medical workers. It was received by Pyotr Vasilyevich Mandryka, the head of the central hospital of the People's Commissar, for his exemplary leadership and competent formulation of the medical case.
Awarding orders of aviation workers
In the pre-war period, the employees of the aviation industry, pilots, navigators and test engineers were most often awarded the Red Star. So, for example, in 1933, the mechanical engineers of the Air Force Aladinsky, Michigin, Gromov and others received the Order of the Red Star, timed to the Day of Aviation. Together with them, employees of military schools preparing personnel for the air force and employees of the construction department, engaged in the creation of aviation equipment, were awarded.
Among the awardees of the aviation industry was the name of the famous aircraft designer Andrei Nikolayevich Tupolev. The formulation used to receive the Order sounded as follows: "For the creation of a number of outstanding aircraft." But soon an outstanding engineer suffered a failure, he was arrested, and all the awards were confiscated. Immediately before the war, Tupolev was released, rehabilitated and was able to return his rewards. However, they were very different numbers.
Evaluation of the merits of other industries
Along with the aviation industry at that time, a great role was played by the extraction of precious materials. The award was awarded to the head of the department of gold mining Serebrovsky for the fact that under his sensitive guidance the company exceeded the metal mining program for 1934.
In the next two years, workers of the missile and tank production were appreciated. The orders received equipment, tank drivers who distinguished themselves with excellent combat skills and successful development of political training. For example, the tanker Oshkaderov received the award for 800 hours of trouble-free control of the tank.
Among others, Red Stars were also given to employees of newspapers. In the first ranks the collective of the same newspaper was awarded. He was noted for special success in providing training and fleet. Later, "Red Star" received other medals.
Order of the Red Star WWII
During the Patriotic War, the number of recipients of the award increased by more than two million. One of the first to be awarded was the radio operator Belovol, who was in the rank of junior sergeant. He alone managed to shoot down 3 enemy planes when returning a group of Soviet aircraft from a mission.
Participants of the Second World War, awarded the Order of the Red Star, were distinguished by their heroism and dedication. Among them were not only outstanding servicemen, but also whole army units, and military units and subunits.
The Order of the Red Star of the Second World War was received as officers who distinguished themselves by competent command of fights, as well as ordinary soldiers, sergeants and corporals for showing heroism in the defense of the Motherland.
Heroes awarded the Order of the Red Star
In the USSR there were many heroes who received the Order of the Red Star. The list of awardees also contains the names of celebrities. For example, the aircraft designer AN Tupolev distinguished himself by the creation of a unique aircraft, and the actor VA Etush took part in the defense of Rostov and Ukraine.
Participants of the Second World War, awarded the Order of the Red Star, were also present among foreign citizens. The merits of warriors from England, Africa, Italy, as well as brave fighters for peace among US servicemen were appreciated. In total during the Great Patriotic War more than 180 citizens of foreign states were awarded.
Knowing what a feat people have done for their Motherland for many decades, the question of what the Order of the Red Star is given to one or another engineer, officer or soldier becomes uncomplicated.
Other military awards of the Soviet Union
In the days of the USSR, a number of medals were established, which were awarded to servicemen of the army, navy, internal troops and border guards. Among them, the medals "For Courage" and "For Military Merit" won special honor. They were received by those who displayed courage and courage in the fight against enemies for the preservation of borders, the integrity and sovereignty of the country.
For sailors, midshipmen and officers of the Navy, separate medals were instituted: the names of admirals Ushakov and Nakhimov.
In the years of the Great Patriotic War, after successful protection of cities from invaders, the head of the Union, Joseph Vissarionovich, issued orders to award medals "For the defense of the city" to specially honored warriors and residents of the liberated cities. Thus, the defenders received defenders of Leningrad, Sevastopol, Moscow, Stalingrad and other cities of the country.