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Where is the carotid artery: the anatomical structure and physiology of the vessel

The sleepy artery is a large vascular formation that supplies arterial blood to the brain tissue and its membranes, facial skull, mimic muscles and skin. The question of determining the exact location of this vessel does not raise questions, since even housewives know where the carotid artery lies. In fact, anyone can palpate her pulsation in the carotid triangle on the anterolateral surface of the neck.

Anatomical structure of the carotid artery

In anatomical terms, the carotid artery is the blood vessel that forms part of the aortic channel. In this case, only the left common carotid artery departs directly from the aortic arch, whereas the analogous vessel of the right half of the body originates from the brachiocephalic trunk. Separating into the right subclavian and common carotid artery, the brachiocephalic trunk, which branches directly from the aortic arch, terminates, giving continuation to vessels of a smaller caliber.

The place where the carotid artery is located is called the vascular-neural bundle, which also contains the vagus nerve along with the veins. On both sides of the common carotid arteries, external and internal carotid arteries depart. Their division and nomenclature are given respectively in the area of blood supply.

The internal carotid artery meets the oxygen demand for the organs of the brain's skull located inside it. In this case, it penetrates into its cavity and forms an arterial network that is resistant to functional disruptions in the work of blood vessels and heart. In the thickness of the cavernous sinus, located on the sides of the Turkish saddle, it gives the anterior cerebral branch that connects to the same-named artery of the opposite side through the anterior connective artery. Also, the internal carotid artery gives the middle and posterior brain branches, which are directed to their brain regions. It is phylogenetically arranged so that the cerebral membranes, in addition to the soft, blood supply the external carotid artery, the pool of which includes all mimic and chewing muscles, skin of the face and head, teeth, nasal cavity and orbit.

Hemodynamics and physiology of carotid arteries

The anatomical structure of the aortic arch is special, since it is an elastic vessel. Taking a part of the blood from her lumen, the carotid arteries carry her to the head. Approximately 25% of cardiac output falls on the brain tissue, which explains the large caliber of carotid arteries. As soon as the heart with another reduction cuts out the portion of blood into the aorta, they receive its quarter.

In the place of division of the common carotid into two arteries, there is a specific formation called the somnolent glomerulus. This place on the neck of the person, where the carotid artery is located, is located at the level of the upper edge of the laryngeal thyroid cartilage. It has a large number of receptors and is a peripheral signaling link reflecting the performance of the heart. If the cardiac output is small, the receptor apparatus experiences a slight pressure, which means it stimulates the vasomotor center. If the pressure in the arterial bed is high, then feedback is closed. There is also evidence that such receptor groups may be located throughout the vessel. Therefore, the places where the carotid artery is located should not be squashed by clothing or violently.

In this case, the lingual artery, which extends from the external carotid, is even larger in diameter, but is directed towards the tongue. This provides him with a powerful circulatory system and maintaining the temperature, as well as recognizing the taste. Also, the blood flow in it is much slower than in the main carotid arteries, which makes it possible to absorb carbohydrates that are cleaved in the oral cavity.

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