Safety of vital activity is important for all people, therefore generally accepted rules should be used. Evacuation is necessary for the organizational withdrawal of people from dangerous places and placement in a favorable zone. This event helps to save the life and health of a person.
Evacuation involves the withdrawal of not only the population, but also material, cultural values. During the emergency period, special organizations work to prevent adverse events. There are different types of evacuation, divided by a variety of criteria.
Types of evacuation
What are the types of evacuation? This event happens:
- Partial: beforehand, the population that does not work in the production and service industries is exported, without disturbing the transport schedule;
- General: it organizes the removal and exit of people from settlements and resettlement in a safe area;
- Dispersed: the export of the population and employees performing work in the war period;
- Temporary: the relocation of people from dangerous areas to safe ones, if there is a threat of natural and man-made emergencies.
Evacuation is carried out in a short time. The event ends when all people are taken out of the dangerous territory. What are the types of evacuation?
Separation by feature
There are different types of evacuation on the basis of:
- On danger: removal of people from places of chemical, radioactive, biological impact, severe destruction, flooding and other factors;
- By the method: evacuation can be carried out by means of transport, as well as on foot and in a mixed way;
- By remoteness: local (one locality), local (on the territory of the subject), regional (federal district), state (nationwide);
- On time: temporary (for a day), medium-term (up to 1 month), long (more than 1 month).
All kinds of evacuation is important to plan, so that everything was done in an orderly manner. Only then will it be possible to avoid many unpleasant consequences.
Features of evacuation types
What types of evacuation are used, if there is a risk of an accident or other dangerous phenomena? Such an event is called advance. It is performed at the risk of occurrence of a beyond design basis accident at hazardous facilities with adverse consequences. The basis is a short-term forecast from minutes to several days.
If there is a risk of dangerous damage, then an emergency evacuation is carried out. The removal of the population from an unfavorable zone is carried out with a short lead time and when people are affected by damaging factors. The event is held in violation of the normal life support of the population, when there is a threat to life and health.
The necessary measures are chosen on the basis of the scale of the spread and the type of hazard, the accuracy of the forecast. In any case, people should be provided with the necessary assistance, which helps to eliminate the threat to life and health.
All types of evacuation of the population must be planned. This work is carried out by the leadership of civil defense, civil defense and emergency services. Evacuation and evacuation organizations of various levels also work in this area. Planning is carried out vertically: the republic - the oblast - the city, the district - the enterprise.
To select the order and order of dispersal of evacuation, the activities are carried out in advance. The population is calculated according to the following groups:
- Workers and employees of organizations that conduct work during the war period, ensure the life of the settlement;
- Workers and employees who transfer work in wartime to a safe area;
- Students of universities, colleges, professors, teachers, staff, students of boarding schools, orphanage pupils, pensioners, unemployed, commercial workers.
All types of evacuation are carried out taking into account these population groups. This is necessary for an organized move to a safe area for people.
Sequence of export of the population
All types of evacuation involve the urgent relocation of the population to a safe area. By means of transport are exported:
- Medical organizations;
- People who do not have the possibility of walking (pregnant women, children under 14, sick, elderly);
- Workers and employees of free shifts, which continue to work during the military period;
- Employees of public administration institutions.
Remaining population is deduced in the second turn. Workers in the spheres of economy, workers in categorized cities during evacuation remain in their places and are preparing for shelter.
During planning, preparation, execution of evacuation it is necessary to choose collateral:
- intelligence service;
- Medical devices;
- Material and technical equipment;
- Protection of public order.
Rules for dispersal
All types and methods of evacuation assume the fulfillment of dispersal. This event helps to organize organized export from categorized cities and accommodation in the suburban area for living.
The staff is divided into:
- Specialized objects of the economy for the performance of work, which do not have production bases for continuing work;
- Institutions that carry out the maintenance of vital activity of objects of categorized cities.
Personnel are located near the categorized cities near railway, road, water stations. These territories are equipped with anti-radiation and simple shelters.
Principles of engineering protection
The main types of evacuation involve the implementation of a variety of activities. Among them is engineering protection. It is performed on the basis of hazard assessment, population categories, engineering geodetic, geological studies, principles of use of the terrain. The main measures of engineering protection include:
- Shelter in equipped protective structures;
- Application for housing public, industrial premises equipped according to safety rules;
- Use of sealed buildings located near radiation and chemical facilities;
- Shelter of people in the premises where self-sealing was performed;
- Protection from spills of emergency chemicals;
- Creation of engineering structures to protect the population from adverse events.
Protection in the shelter
The most effective means of protection is considered to be shelter in reliable civil defense structures. These structures are divided into shelters and antiradiation structures.
Vaults are divided according to capacity, territory of location, availability of filter-ventilation facilities, creation time. With the help of these structures, the population is protected from nuclear explosions, shock waves, poisonous components, bacteriological agents. Vaults are created in areas that can not be flooded. They have entrances and exits, and in case of a blockage emergency exits are applied.
Anti- radiation shelters are used to protect against radiation. They are erected during the peace period, and some of them are created with the likelihood of armed conflict. Usually they are equipped in basements, basement floors, cellars. Thanks to these facilities, the population is protected from radioactive radiation, from accidents at chemical plants, from natural disasters. Protected structures include simple shelters.
Experts advise each person to prepare for evacuation, because it can come suddenly. To do this, you need to prepare documents, money, values, so that they are always in a prominent place.
In areas where there is a probability of evacuation, the necessary things are stored in a backpack. Such an event will require products for 2-3 days. Personal protective equipment is required, which must always be in a conspicuous place. These rules will allow you to be ready for evacuation in any situation.