The Russian system of warnings and actions has to solve a huge number of tasks in emergency situations in all spheres of activity: these are the problems of the environment, and the provision of humanitarian assistance to those who suffered from natural disasters, accidents, accidents, armed conflicts both in Russia and abroad , This is the information support of emergency zones, the creation of rapid deployment units, so that the forces and assets of the ESDP help people in all emergency situations, wherever they occur.
Lead civil defense in the person of heads (managers) of enterprises, organizations, institutions, departments of ministries, executive authorities in the republics, regions, territories, autonomous entities, cities and districts, ministries and departments, organizations, institutions, enterprises regardless of ownership . The forces and resources of the RSES are fully managed by these people.
Heads of posts are chiefs of civil defense and bear personal responsibility for the implementation and organization of civil defense activities, for the creation of accumulated funds for collective and individual means of protection and ensuring their safety. They are also responsible for all the forces and means of the Emergency Council, which are necessary for the liquidation of an emergency situation at facilities that are located in subordinate facilities and territories. The Department for Emergency Situations and Civil Defense Affairs was created on the basis of the former headquarters of the Civil Defense Ministry.
The structure of the ESDP includes departmental, functional and territorial subsystems. Territorial - those republics that are part of the Russian Federation, the regions and regions - are subdivided into links in the administrative-territorial division, and the leadership - by the emergency commission or other bodies that must fulfill their functions. The forces and means of the RSPS are planned, developed, and then implement actions to prevent emergencies. In the same place, forces are created and equipped to eliminate possible emergencies and their consequences. They act independently, if the scale of emergencies did not go beyond the territories under their authority. The working body of each Emergency Commission (CoES) is the Emergency and Civil Defense Department.
As for the functional subsystems, these are the governing bodies, to which the entire composition of the forces and means of the ESD of ministries and departments is subordinate. They solve the tasks of directly monitoring and controlling the natural environment, monitoring potentially dangerous objects. In their competence, the creation of reserve funds, protection of the population, localization and liquidation of emergencies. Separate functional subsystems may include management bodies, as well as the forces of the ESD of several departments and ministries of the RF with similar or complementary tasks. Departmental same subsystems are created in all ministries and departments to prevent emergencies at subordinate facilities and to eliminate them.
The forces and assets of the RSES are divided into local (territorial), regional and federal - these three levels function in the management of the RSES. The regional level appeared in connection with the division of the Russian Federation into nine parts, it is needed in order to manage the GO troops, coordinate the interaction of territorial, republican, territorial and regional authorities in the event of both local and global emergencies. Heads of civil defense have apparatus - headquarters, where officials and officials who are not exempt from basic duties work, and staff workers.
Such a composition of forces and assets of the RSES are management headquarters, which have strictly prescribed duties. They organize and ensure the continuous management of civil defense in case of accidents, natural disasters and catastrophes, timely notify the services, formations, employees, workers and the entire population of settlements adjacent to the emergency zone, develop a civil defense plan, protect the workforce, train the personnel of all Formations of civil defense, as well as workers and employees. The forces of the Civil Defense Council and the EPRS constantly support readiness for action in the circumstances of any emergency situations.
The Services Division
Carrying out rescue works implies preparation for a variety of urgent activities, for this purpose the forces and means of the RSES are divided into special relevant services.
- Protection of public order.
- Communication and notification.
- Fire prevention service.
- Emergency technical service.
- Medical service.
- Service of shelters and shelters.
- Anti-chemical and anti-radiation protection.
- Motor transport service.
- Supply Service (material and technical).
These are the most necessary formations, where the forces of the RSES participate, but not all. Their number is determined by the chief of civil defense of this or that object, taking into account the specifics of enterprises, the presence of structural subdivisions and so on.
In order to fulfill the main tasks of the ESDP, the forces and resources should be directed primarily at organizing the notification of the population and informing it, protecting the population and carrying out measures to protect the territory. Simultaneously, the forces of the RSES liquidate the emergency situation. Then we need to start humanitarian assistance to the population. The main task always remains constant training of the population, training of specialists and management personnel.
In addition, it is necessary to pay a lot of attention to the promotion of the role played by the forces and resources of the RSES system in the security of the region and the country. These are the main tasks of each division of civil defense and emergency situations. The federal executive authority always has specially trained and certified forces and means of eliminating the RSES, which are intended solely for the prevention and elimination of emergency situations. If we use them as a single state system, material and human losses can be reduced to a minimum.
Monitoring and control
The first unit of forces and assets of the Civil Defense and Emergencies is engaged in supervision of the state of nuclear power plants, bridges, boilers, gas and electric installations and other important facilities. In addition, the forces and means of surveillance carry out monitoring and inspection activities from the Ministry of Ecology, analyze the status of potentially hazardous objects and the environment, carry veterinary services, support the network of laboratory control of civil defense, and monitor the quality of food raw materials and food. There is also a disaster warning service.
Elimination of emergency situations
The second unit includes units and units of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Ministry of Defense, the Ministry of Emergencies, as well as non-military civil defense formations, the forces and assets of other ministries and departments, state bodies or non-state ones located on the territory of the Russian Federation. The basis is the GO troops, search and rescue services and parts of the Ministry of Emergency Situations, which are in constant readiness. As part of the Ministry of Emergency Situations along with the rescue teams there are also airborne - mobile and efficient.
The first in the country formation, which consists of high-class professionals, is an airborne State Central Rescue Team, promptly responding to man-made and natural disasters. He not only gained fame on the territory of the country, but also beyond its borders.
On any continent the detachment arrives quickly and within a few weeks can work autonomously, helping to eliminate the consequences of landslides, earthquakes and other natural disasters. People are taken from the ground, debris or ruins and immediately provide medical care. The detachment can give simultaneously several groups of rescuers for different regions both in Russia and in the near and far abroad.
Ministries and departments
Rapid reaction forces are also in the ministries and departments: fire and recovery trains at the Ministry of Railways, for example. The Ministry of Internal Affairs provides security of material values and law and order in extreme situations, protects important objects, organizes, if necessary, a throughput or cordon. The Ministry of Emergency Situations is responsible, among other things, for the fire service, which not only extinguishes fires, but also eliminates the consequences of accidents at chemical enterprises, saving people and material values.
The FSB provides state security in emergency situations at the Russian Federation's regime facilities and in providing assistance to other states. The Ministry of Health is a subsystem of the Russian Emergency Situations Ministry, which also has its own emergency emergency service. Minatom, the Ministry of Fuel and Energy, and the Ministry of Agriculture also have the forces and means of the Emergency Situations Ministry in the form of potentially dangerous facilities in the territories that eliminate the consequences of emergency situations, have hospitals, laboratories.
DOSAAF - ROSTO (Russian Defense Sports Technical Organization) is also the founder of the association of rescue teams, including groups and voluntary rescue teams - paratroopers, airmobile, underwater, road transport, telecommunications. All the subjects of the Russian Federation create and equip the forces and assets of the RSES. In each city, district, at each facility there are separate units of civil defense and emergency situations. Wherever there is an accident, a natural disaster or a catastrophe, by the forces and means of the RSES can be disposed of instantly.