Third Reich: take-off, fall, weapons, marches and awards

The Third Reich (Drittes Reich) - so unofficially called the German state from 1933 to 1945. The German word Reich literally means "lands that are subject to the same authority." But, as a rule, it is translated as "power", "empire", less often "kingdom". It all depends on the context. Later in the article, the rise and fall of the Third Reich, the achievement of the empire in foreign and domestic policy, will be described.

general information

In historiography and literature, the Third Reich is called fascist or Nazi Germany. The first name, as a rule, was used in Soviet publications. But this use of the term is somewhat incorrect, since the fascist regimes of Mussolini in Italy and Hitler had significant differences. There were differences in ideology and in the political structure. At that time Germany was the country in which the totalitarian regime was established. In the state there was a one-party system and the dominant ideology - National Socialism. Control of the government was extended to all areas of activity. The Third Reich was supported by the power of the German National Socialist Workers Party. The head of this education was Adolf Hitler. He was also the permanent head of the country until his death (1945). The official title of Hitler is "Reich Chancellor and Fuhrer". The fall of the Third Reich occurred at the end of World War II. Shortly before this, in 1944, an unsuccessful attempt was made to overthrow and assassinate Hitler (The Generals Conspiracy). The Nazi movement was wide-ranging. The symbolism of fascism-the swastika-was of particular importance. It was used almost everywhere, even coins of the Third Reich were issued.

Foreign policy

Since 1938, in this direction, there has been a certain desire for political and territorial expansion. March of the Third Reich passed through various states. So, in March of the above-mentioned year, the Anschluss (annexation by force) of Austria was made, and in the period from September 38th to March 39th, the Klaipeda region and the Czech Republic were joined to the German state. Then the country's territory expanded even more. In the 39th, some Polish regions and Danzig were annexed, and in the 41st, annexation (forcible annexation) of Luxembourg took place.

World War II

It is necessary to note the unprecedented success of the German Empire in the first years of the war. March of the Third Reich passed through much of continental Europe. Many territories were captured, except for Sweden, Switzerland, Portugal and Spain. Some regions were occupied, others de facto were considered as dependent state educations. The latter, for example, include Croatia. However, there were exceptions - this is Finland and Bulgaria. They were allies of Germany and carried out all the same independent policy. But by 1943 there was a significant change in the military operations. The preponderance was now on the side of the Anti-Hitler Coalition. By January 1945, the fighting had been transferred to pre-war German territory. The fall of the Third Reich occurred after the dissolution of the Flensburg government, led by Karl Doenitz. It happened in 1945, on May 23rd.

Revival of the economy

During the first years of Hitler's rule, Germany achieved success not only in foreign policy. It must be said here that the achievements of the Führer contributed to the economic revival of the state. The results of his work were evaluated by a number of foreign analysts and in political circles as a miracle. The unemployment that had existed in post-war Germany until 1932 declined from six million to an incomplete one by 1936. In the same period there was an increase in industrial production (up to 102%), and income doubled. Accelerated production rates. During the first year of Nazi rule, the management of the economy was largely determined by Yalmar Shacht (Hitler himself hardly interfered in his activities). At the same time, domestic policy was directed, first of all, to employment of all unemployed people due to a sharp increase in the volume of public works, as well as stimulation of the sphere of private entrepreneurship. For the unemployed, state loans were provided in the form of special bills. Tax rates for companies expanding capex and significantly increasing employment have significantly decreased.

Contribution of Yalmar Shacht

It should be said that since 1934 the country's economy has taken a military course. According to many analysts, the true revival of Germany was based on rearmament. It was on him that the efforts of the working class and the entrepreneurial class were directed together with the activities of the military. The military economy was organized in such a way as to function both in peacetime and in the period of military operations, but it is oriented generally toward war. The ability of the mine to deal with financial matters was directed toward the payment of preparatory measures, rearmament in particular. One of his tricks was printing banknotes. Shakht had the ability to turn quite deftly various frauds into currency. Foreign economists even calculated that at that time the German brand had at once 237 courses. Shakht concluded very profitable commodity-exchange transactions with various countries, showed, to the surprise of analysts, it must be said that the higher the debt was set, the wider the business could be deployed. Revived in this way, the mine economy from 1935 to 1938 was used exclusively to finance rearmament. It was estimated at 12 billion marks.

Control of Hermann Goering

This figure took over part of the Mine's functions and became the "dictator" of the German economy in 1936. Despite the fact that Goering himself was, like Hitler himself, an ignoramus in the economic sphere, the country switched to a system of military total domestic policy. A four-year plan was developed, the aim of which was to turn Germany into a state capable of providing everything necessary for itself in case of war and blockade. As a result, imports were reduced to the lowest possible level, strict control of prices and wages was also started, dividends became limited to 6% per annum. The super-constructions of the Third Reich began to be built massively. They were huge plants for the production of fabrics, synthetic rubber, fuel, and other goods from its own raw materials. Steel industry also began to develop. In particular, superstructures of the Third Reich were built - giant Goring factories, where only local ore was used in production. As a result, Germany's economy was fully mobilized for military needs. At the same time, industrialists, whose incomes have risen sharply, have become the mechanisms of this "military machine". At the same time, Shakht's activities were constrained by huge restrictions and reporting.

Economy before the Second World War

In place of the Shaft in 1937 came Walter Funk. He initially held the post of Minister of Economy, and then, two years later, in 1939, became president of the Reichsbank. According to experts, Germany by the beginning of World War II, in general, of course, "dispersed" the economy. But it turned out that the Third Reich was not ready to conduct long-term hostilities. The supply of materials and raw materials was limited, and the volume of domestic production was minimal. During all the war years the situation with the labor force was extremely tense, both qualitatively and quantitatively. However, despite all the difficulties, due to the total control of the state apparatus and German organization, the economy nevertheless got on the right track. And although there was a war, production in the country grew steadily. Over time, the volume of military industry also increased. So, for example, in 1940, it amounted to 15% of gross production, and by 1944 - already 50%.

Development of scientific and technical base

In the system of universities in Germany there was a giant scientific sector. He belonged to higher technical institutions and universities. To the same sector belonged to the Research Institute " Kaiser Wilhelm Society ". Organizationally, all institutions were subordinate to the Ministry of Education, Education and Science. In this structure, which consisted of thousands of scientists, had its own scientific council, members of which were representatives of different disciplines (medicine, foundry and mining, chemistry, physics, and others). Each such scientist was subordinated to a separate group of specialists of the same profile. Each member of the council had to direct the scientific and research activity and planning of his group. Together with this sector there was an industrial independent scientific research organization. Its meaning became clear only after in 1945 the German allies appropriated the results of its activities to themselves. The sector of this industrial organization was the laboratories of large concerns "Siemens", "Zeiss", "Farben", "Telefunken", "Osram". These and other enterprises had huge facilities, equipment that met the technical requirements of the time, highly qualified employees. These concerns could work with more than, for example, institute laboratories, productivity.

Ministry of Speer

In addition to research industrial groups and various scientific laboratories, a large organization was a research institute of the armed forces. But, again, this sector was not whole, but was divided into several parts, scattered by individual types of troops. The Ministry of Speer acquired special significance during the war. It should be noted that during this period the supply of laboratories and institutes of raw materials, equipment and personnel to the laboratories and institutes has considerably decreased, the industry in the country was barely able to cope with the large volume of orders from military departments. The Ministry of Speer gained the authority to solve various production issues. For example, about what research work should be stopped as unnecessary, what to continue, as it has an important strategic importance, what research should become a priority, play a decisive role.


The weapons of the Third Reich were produced with the introduction of various scientific developments, according to specially created technologies. Of course, with the chosen course of the economy, there could not be another. Germany was not only to provide for itself in an industrial sense, but also to have manned troops. In addition to the usual, the "cold weapons" of the Third Reich also began to be developed. However, all projects were frozen before the defeat of fascism. The results of many research works served as a starting point for the scientific activities of the states of the Anti-Hitler Coalition.

Third Reich Awards

Before the Nazis came to power, there was a certain system, according to which the presentation of memorable insignia was carried out to the rulers of the lands, that is, territorial. With the advent of Hitler, significant changes were made to the process. So, before the Second World War, the Fuhrer personally appointed and presented the rewards of the Third Reich of any kind. Later, this right was given to different levels of commanders. But there were some insignia, which, in addition to Hitler, could not be handed to anyone (for example, the Knight's Cross).

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