Where do we begin the analysis of the poem "Monument" by Lomonosov? After all, judging by the name, the autobiographical component plays a key role in it. How did the conscious way of life of this highly worthy man begin?
Escaped in the night of 1730 from the house secretly from all relatives right in the middle of the night a 19-year-old guy ... Ahead of him is the way to thousands of miles. He is dressed in a worn-out sheepskin coat, thrown over his shirt. In a travel bag, except for a piece of bread and a spare shirt, his talisman to the end of days: the neighbor's grammarian Smotritsky and Magnitsky's arithmetic presented to him.
Who is he, young Lomonosov, whose work, "Monument", which he wrote seventeen years ago, inspired and inspires the best of the poets of the Fatherland? An adventurer who began his conquest of the sciences with a forgery of documents proving his identity. How many hopes there are, how many aspirations! A fanatic reading days and nights, while being content with ascetic costs - three kopecks a day. A young man with a phenomenal memory and the highest IQ, forced to live starving to starvation, eating only kvass and bread, but still not saving on paper and candles ...
The name of Lomonosov is the pride of the Fatherland
Lomonosov ... "I erected a monument to myself not made by hands ..." - after him in 90 years Alexander Pushkin will say . Recognition of the Fatherland Mikhail Vasilievich, a truly amazing person - tangible. The first Russian scientist is a world-class natural scientist; Recognized encyclopedist; The founder of the Russian scientific school, an astronomer; A man who laid the foundations of the modern Russian language, a geologist, a geographer, a historian, a poet ...
"Memorial" Lomonosov - a special verse. He - solemn and sublime, as it stands alone, being, in fact, the anthem of high Poetry. His mission is to publicly summarize the many years of poetry.
The theme of the poem "Monument" by Lomonosov is the statement of the state role of Russian poetry, and also the definition of one's merits in versification. Mikhail Vasilyevich became the conductor of the development of classicism in Russian literature, the assertion of the principles of patriotism, the value of a person's personality. Citizenship - this is the credo of literature, which Lomonosov asserts ("Monument"). The poem, the analysis of which reveals charisma, the strength of the mature poetic talent of its author, is a vivid phenomenon in Russian poetry.
Following Lomonosov-linguist general state progress
Lomonosov's "Rhetoric", consonant with the regularities of the Horatian "Poetry Art", marked the reform of Russian versification. In his Monument, the poet subtly, with hints, without violating the Horatian style, welcomed the formation of a civil society in Russia under the Emperor Peter I.
The very design of the work is impeccable. Russia, according to its historical mission, is associated with the Third Rome. Hence, it is consonant with this, the civilizational model of the Russian literary process should be sought precisely in the history of ancient Rome! This logic is followed by Lomonosov ("Monument").
The poem, the analysis of which reveals that it is a revelation of the poet, indicating which role in his country worthy to occupy high poetry.
According to its form "Monument" by Lomonosov - the canonical verse, which has a primary source - the ode of the most famous poet of the heyday of Roman literature Quintus Horace Flaccus. Thanks to this, the author succeeds in organically linking eternal values and the Russian way of development. However, the main idea of the translation is to expose similar ways of development of the literatures of Russia and Rome.
Principal differences between Lomonosov's "Monument" and the Horatian Ode "To Melpomene"
Mikhail Vasilievich, carefully saving from the original source the significance of the life-building and aesthetic manifesto, at the same time departed from his anacreonics, that is, lyricism, which celebrates the joy of life. By a two-syllable iambic, practically without rhyming the lines, deliberately using words - anachronisms, Lomonosov achieves clarity, solemnity, and chasing the presentation of thought. Ode is distinguished by a stable stanza, as well as a steady meter, which define the so-called "odic canon". It sounds really solemn.
Historical conditions for creating ode
Peter I really managed to stir up and mobilize to create a huge country, which thesis mentions in a dress "Monument" Lomonosov. This poem brings to us an extremely respectful description of the emperor-reformer as "reigning among the people." Perhaps that is why he went down in history as Peter the Great? Not mentioning the first Russian emperor, Mikhail Vasilievich outlines his image, comparing it with the Roman emperor Davnus.
Reformers of poetry Lomonosov, Horace. "Monument" - the crown of their creativity
Both poets: the author of the original "Monument" and the author of his translation, and Horace, and Lomonosov - are reformers of each of their national system of versification. Horace belongs to the primacy in the use of Alkey's stanza in Latin poetry. Lomonosov - the introduction in the Russian versification of the syllabo-tonic principle, the development of samples of various rhythmic structures of Russian poetry. Pushkin was not born yet, and the four-legged iambic, as well as the principles of versification, had already been developed. What do you think, by whom? The question is, of course, rhetorical ...
As the architect of native speech, as a linguist, Mikhail Vasilyevich systematically transformed, and in fact - created the rhetoric of the Russian language.
The idea of Horace's ode "Exegi monumentum ..."
Its creator went down in history as a poet-citizen, philosophically determined his place in history and in the state. (He presented this ode in the third part of his main work, The Science of Poetry.) His main theses are: the poet draws the motives of creativity in the state, and the state, in turn, receives from him in return a special poetic image, glorifying his glory, a romantic halo.
What is Horat's contribution to world poetry? Horace, the man who "made himself," the creator of the science of the art of poetry, knew: in the world "there are places carved out of stone." If kings and pharaohs perpetuate themselves with cyclopean constructions, then the poet, the ruler of the muses, creates in his memory spiritual "symbols of immortality" - his works. These works are timeless, affecting the souls of different generations of people, they evoke thoughts, associations. Thus, the name of the poets does not go into oblivion. This idea the great Roman actually declared in his dress "To Melpomene."
Similar to the Horatian, but with an amendment to Russian specificity, Lomonosov put his views on poetry in his work "Monument". This poem can quite have the epigraph "Sapere aude" ("Decide to acquire wisdom"). The vision of Mikhail Vasilievich for the development of Russian literature practically coincided with the Horatian. And this despite the fact that Lomonosov and Horace shared fifteen hundred years!)
Historical reference: the stanzas of Horace have already been addressed ...
However, 250 years before the birth of Lomonosov, the Italian poet Francesco Petrarca, a famous Catholic figure of the Italian Renaissance, had already created his verses (sonnets, sextets, madrigals, canzons), influenced by Horace. The most popular from the creative heritage of the Romans for European poets, as well as for Mikhail Vasilievich, was the Goracian third book "The Science of Poetry", where the ode "To Melpomene" is contained.
Lomonosov is the founder of the Horatio literary tradition
To create an original translation of the ancient Roman work, associating directly with itself, while denoting in it personal merit before the Literature ... This poetic Horatian tradition was created by Lomonosov. The moral right to continue it had a few Russian poets: Derzhavin, Pushkin, Bryusov, Mayakovsky, Gamzatov, Vysotsky.
Already in the XVIII - XIX century, each monument was created: Derzhavin, Pushkin, Lomonosov. What kind of a tendency is seen in the transformation of the monument to Lomonosov to the monument of Pushkin? Lomonosov's work is formally Roman, and Pushkin's only speaks only of "the great Rus." Perhaps, Alexander Sergeyevich retained only the inner logic of the work, and mention the Alexandrian pillar as a comparison.
Solemnity of the ode
Analysis of the poem "Monument" by Lomonosov formally redirects us to read Horatius of his achievements in poetry, recognized by the Roman society and the state. They, followed by the great Roman, list and Mikhail Vasilyevich. However, we note that Lomonosov is not a clerk at the same time - an extras. Just the originality of the Lomonosov enumeration of the merits of the great Roman before the Eternal Empire is not in their blind retelling. The originality of Mikhail Vasilievich's idea is that, using his comparison with Horace and Russia with Rome, he should tell the general public about his work. Himself, he has similar Goraccian merits to his own literature! Thus, virtually every stanza of the work he wrote is associated with himself already with Russia and with himself personally.
Analysis of the poem "Monument" by Lomonosov, written in the genre of ode, celebrates the solemnity, non-puissance of the text - the characteristic features of the ode. These poems presuppose their public reading.
Lomonosov's project of Russian literature as a "sign of immortality"
In fact, about the mission of creating an ordered Russian language with its unique style system, harmonious principles of versification, developed by a harmonious system of genres, having done all this to a symbol, the sign is written by Lomonosov ("Monument"). An analysis of the enduring significance of this contribution to the development of the wording reveals the uniqueness of Russian classicism. In contrast to European classicism, in the 18th century Russian did not rely on the developed national literary tradition. But Lomonosov developed its ordering. Ie, thanks to Mikhail Vasilievich, in 18th-century Russia, the theory of literature outstripped her practice.
The poet is immortal in his homeland
Here is such a truly "eternal sign" - the perfect system of versification granted all poets - their heirs Lomonosov. After all, the great Russian language is out of time. It is underlining this, the poet - scientist turns to the well-known symbol of eternity - the pyramids. The work of Lomonosov "Monument" argues that the fate of the poet - a citizen bound by innumerable ties with the Motherland - is also inextricably linked with it. He, like the legendary Antey, draws strength from his homeland. High creativity can not but rely on statehood and must serve it, Mikhail Vasilievich believes.
What is the identity of Lomonosov and Horace?
Reading the lines of the Lomonosov Monument, where the formal speech is on behalf of the Roman poet, you really feel a sense of deja vu with Russia of the eighteenth century, its poetry.
The work of Lomonosov was continued by poets
He, like Horace, without excessive modesty and objectively compares his contribution to the literature with the subsequent, i.e. Future literary process. He understands that his work will always be in demand, his achievements have determined the main trends in the development of poetry, which will inevitably continue the followers. Therefore, Lomonosov, following the great Roman, echoes "I will not die at all ..." He follows Horace and links his glory with the glory of the state. In the poem Lomonosov uses the word "Rome", although the shrewd reader under this sees "Russia".
However, do not forget that the Russian golden galaxy of poets received from Lomonosov an invaluable gift - a harmonious theory of rhetoric and poetry-scientist rules of versification. Pushkin's four-legged iambic was invented in Mikhail Vasilyevich's creative laboratory.
The indisputable invaluable contribution of Lomonosov to Russian poetry just shows us his poem "Monument".