Speaking figuratively, the human digestive system resembles a crusher. Only the crusher is intelligent, because it directs all useful substances to the functioning of other organs, and unnecessary - to waste.
The human digestive system is a set of many organs and glands that provide the body with the necessary nutrients for vital activity. It occupies almost the entire human body, starting from the oral cavity and ending with the rectum. Therefore, the problem of the functioning of one of the digestive organs is reflected in the entire digestive system as a whole. Her condition is affected by environmental conditions and stresses, food products and supplements, medicines and regimen.
Organs of the digestive system
Each department of the digestive tract performs a separate process of processing and digesting products. A lot of processes of splitting of food particles occurs with the help of enzymes, which produce the organs of the digestive system.
These include oral cavity and pharynx, esophagus and stomach, liver and pancreas, small and large intestine. All these organs, except for the liver and pancreas, make up the digestive tract about 10 meters in length.
The human digestive system is an interrelated complex of processing of products entering the body, divided into certain stages.
In the mouth cavity food gets in the first place, here it is grinded by teeth and moistened with saliva. From the correctness of the initial processing is dependent on the entire subsequent process of digestion.
The pharynx serves as a channel for the passage of food masses into the esophagus, where the food entering the stomach is moistened.
The stomach is the main component of the digestive tract. Here, the food masses impregnate the juice, an intensive process of digestion takes place. Gastric juice mainly consists of enzymes, hydrochloric acid and mucus. Solid food here can be digested for five hours, and liquid - for up to two hours. Under the influence of gastric juice, chemical processing of food occurs, which turns into a semi-liquid mass entering the duodenum.
The duodenum is called the upper part of the small intestine. Here the gallbladder receives bile and pancreatic juice. The glands of the duodenum produce an alkaline secret, which is saturated with mucus. It protects it from the effects of acidic gastric juice.
To the small intestine, in addition to the duodenum, there are also the lean and ileum. On this site, the food is digested and absorbed. The process of digestion in humans ends in a small intestine rich in glands, which secrete intestinal juice with a large number of enzymes. Enzymes of intestinal juice complete the splitting of proteins, carbohydrates and fats. Then, using peristalsis, the food masses move along the small intestine, gradually moving into the large intestine.
The remains of food arrive in the large intestine, which has not been digested. Here there are processes of water absorption and formation of stool. Hence, all the "waste" enters the rectum.
Digestion of food is impossible without the involvement of bile. It is continuously formed in the liver, but enters the duodenum only at the time of digestion.
Pathologies of the digestive system
Since the human digestive system consists of many organs, the varieties of its diseases are also numerous.
"Leaders", according to statistics, are inflammatory processes in the esophagus (esophagitis) and stomach (gastritis). Diseases such as duodenal inflammation (duodenitis), liver cell function disruptions (hepatitis), insufficient pancreatic activity (pancreatitis) are also common . Often there are problems with the gallbladder and ducts (cholecystitis and cholangitis), inflammation of the small and large intestine (enteritis and colitis), etc.
These diseases of the digestive system, in turn, lead to ulcers and stomach cancer, the formation of gallstones, ulcerative colitis. In modern society, the intestinal dysbacteriosis has spread, including in newborn children.
Symptoms of diseases of the digestive tract are diverse and depend on problems with this or that organ. The first signals of violations in the digestive system are abdominal pain, the appearance of belching, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, flatulence, weakness and weight loss.