They sought to preserve their wealth, to take command posts in the Makhdist state, to use it in their class interests. Dulling the social edge of the Mahdist sermon, they stressed that "the rich and the poor are united by common faith and common goals in the" holy war ".
At the same time, a new feudal nobility also emerged. The Mahdist commanders and the caliph himself, Abdallah, appropriated the lion's share of the military booty, acquired large estates, and owned slaves. On this basis, within the mahdist movement, there was a split between the degenerate top and the popular masses. Speeches of peasants, artisans, slaves, nomads against the Makhdist feudal; The Caliph brutally suppressed them. In the history of the Sudan, much fellowship occurred during these ten years.
Weakened and the ties between the tribes, laid down in the initial period of the uprising. The Mahdist upper line rested on a group of tribes, some were the Caliph Abdullah. They were placed in a privileged position, they received weapons and a considerable part of the military extraction. The rest of the tribes were subjected to all kinds of oppression.
At the end of XIX century. The struggle of the powers for the Sudan and the headwaters of the Nile entered: at the decisive stage. In 1896 Italy, attacking Ethiopia, was defeated. In the Battle of Adua, her troops were defeated. Using this, rival of Italy - France received in Ethiopia, a number of concessions and began to prepare for the conquest of Eastern Sudan. A military expedition was sent from the French West Africa to the headwaters of the Nile. In turn, England hurried to equip a strong military expedition against the Sudan under the command of General Kitchener. Moving from Egypt up the Nile, Anglo-Khediv: troops came in September 1898 to Omdurman - the capital of the Mahdist state. In the battle under this city tens of thousands of Mahdists. Were exterminated by English machine guns. The Mahdist state has fallen. The English barbarians destroyed the Mahdi's tomb and dispelled his ashes. The British pursued the remnants of the Mahdist army on their heels, suppressed the last centers of popular resistance.
September 19, 1898 in the village Fashoda (in the White Nile), the British detachment met with the French expedition of Marchand. England demanded the Eyvod of French troops from Sudan. On this ground, an acute conflict arose threatening the war. Lenin, listing "(Crucial) Crises in the international politics of great powers," noted :. "England is a hair's breadth from the war with France (Fashod). Rob ("divide") Africa. " Eventually, France was forced to withdraw its troops and renounce claims to the Eastern Sudan. The British imperialists took over the country.
In 1899, Sudan was formally placed under the so-called "condominium", i.e., the joint domination of England and Egypt.
History of Sudan In the 1890s.