There are several ways of word formation. Thanks to them, the language is constantly in development. One of them is the suffix method. This means that the suffix is added to the root of the already existing word and (if necessary) the ending. Also people use prefixes to get new words. Often there is a pristavochno-suffixal way.
Word formation in Russian
The unit of speech is the word. And it can be represented as an independent part of speech, and official. The structure can only have the first option, because it includes both names and a set of verbs, all special forms of the verb such as participles, gerunds, adverbs, etc. The word has a root - the main part, in which lies the whole meaning of the unit of speech, and auxiliary, Which can not only be a complement, but also change the meaning of the word beyond recognition - it's about prefixes and suffixes.
The suffixal way of word formation
Consider, for example, a word consisting of one root - "laughter" (the ending in this word is zero). Only auxiliary particles in the form of a prefix or suffix will appear, and there will be no more laughter, but many new meanings and parts of speech will appear. But there is one thing: the letters in the root can change, that is, alternate. In this case there will be a change: laughter-laugh-laugh.
- With the suffix -ok, you can get a new word - a laugh, which means "quiet laughter", or "secretive". An example of the use of the word will be the sentence: "The laugh of Leo Vasilyevich seemed suspicious to me." Here there is a suffix Word formation.
- With the help of the suffix -inc-, the word "smeshinka" is obtained, which means something cheerful that causes laughter. "Grishka burst into the room: his mouth was obviously smeared, because his mouth was up to his ears." Here, too, the suffix method is observed, although in addition to the base, the ending was added.
Formation of words with the help of a suffix, and prefixes
Often the unit of speech is obtained with the participation of a prefix. This is the name of the prefix. But much more often people use the pristavochno-suffixal way. Examples of words obtained with the participation of both suffixes and consoles together can be considered in relation to the same root "laughter".
- Adding a prefix and a suffix -k- (ending in the account does not take), we get a new word - "ridicule", which means already offensive or ironic utterance, joke, sneer or action. Often so denote a facial expression (muzzle) or look. Example: "Meanwhile, Vaska's cat looked with mockery at the stupid mouse, which was rushing from corner to corner." A new word appeared thanks to the prefix and the suffix -k-. This unit of language has a completely different semantic meaning. From an involuntary physical reaction of a person to humor or tickling with the help of the movement of the muscles of the face and the reproduction of certain sounds, a deliberate offensive act or phrase was obtained.
- When adding the prefix y and suffix -k-laughter turns into a grin, which means a short, light smile, sometimes with an ironic or even bitter tinge. "I did not like the grin of my pet: he thinks too much about himself."
- Using several suffixes at a time, but somehow: -you-, -y- and -ya, as well as the prefix y-, you can get another part of the speech - the verb "to grin", which means "to represent on the face a grin". "Finding in the kitchen cats, brazenly eating up my catch, I could only bitterly grinned."
Formation of words without transition to another part of speech
The noun, formed by the suffixal method, can acquire additional meaning, hue, clarification, for example, in size, or be colored by the speaker's attitude. "Assistants" in this case are the most different suffixes. Let's consider some of them, at formation of which the suffix method is used. Examples clearly show that the lexical meaning remains the same, but the word has other shades and an indication of any distinctive features.
They indicate the size, weight or volume of an object, creature, or phenomenon that differs from most existing around.
For example, such are the diminutive suffixes -ek, -ik. The word "lock" is formed in a suffix way, that is, a small lock. In the same way, a unit of language "key" appeared - a device for opening, but smaller in relation to others.
Suffixes -ok - / - yok - also appear in a similar role: a light, a breeze, a sweater.
Sometimes, to give the word a diminutive shade, several suffixes are used, for example, -och- / - ech- and -k-: sprig, calyx. However, these words are, as it were, transitional in the vocabulary from pointing only to the size (volume, weight, force) to the painted relation of the speaker, that is, with a touch of diminutive nouns. After all, "a cup" can be called and the usual in volume dishes, but your favorite.
In order to reduce the effect of gentle treatment to the hue, the suffixes -enk - / - onky-, -ushk - / - Yushk-, -shish-: mamma, birch, volyushka, mother-in-law, the sun are used.
1. My mother-in-law is a miracle!
2. She to me and mamma, and the girl-friend, and the adviser, and the wise instructor.
3. With the birth of her daughter in the house as if the sun began to glow constantly!
The same role is played by -ec - / - uy - / - q-.
1. Smart dress so changed the face of the girl, that everyone just opened their mouths with amazement!
2. Although the coat was not enough, Natasha did not want to wear a new one - this is the kind of love she showed for the gift of her father.
- The suffix -k-, as discussed above-the point-f-echk, can serve as a diminutive, but is more often used to form a word with a diminutive shade: pen, pine, pelerinka.
To designate the cubs of animals, use -one - / - yenok-.
1. Teddy bear ridiculously overturned, hurrying to keep up with the mother bear.
2. The belchonok wanted to jump from branch to branch, as mom does, but failed to fall from the tree into the grass.
The suffix that gives words a magnifying tinge
Such is the morpheme-ish-. And interesting is the fact that it is used in conjunction with the endings -a in the female gender and -e in the male and the middle. The word formed with the ending -e has the form of a neuter gender, but it is always so. For example, the dominion will remain a masculine noun, when used in the context, it is necessary to correctly combine the adjective or participle related to it, and also use the verb if it is in the past tense.
- We were surprised when we saw a huge house instead of a shack!
- The creature flung open its violet eye and stared straight in our direction.
- I wonder what kind of growth was that man, whose remains were discovered by archaeologists?
- This is the luncheon! You can not only build a table leg, but use the leftovers as a stump for sitting.
- The huge hand of the peasant so gently touched the little boy's little head that the tear came to its own accord.
Suffixes that form the names of persons
The role of this morpheme can not be overestimated. Some words formed with it have become so firmly entrenched that often people do not even share the root and word-forming part.
- Sometimes the suffix -ik- can act not as a diminutive or diminutive-caressing, but for the formation of a completely new word. This is also a suffix way, examples of words formed in this way demonstrate what was said above: an old man, a clever, modest man.
- Suffixes that are involved in the formation of the names of occupations or people of certain occupations are interesting-a person / -hotel, -char, -schar- / - loschik, -ar, -l-, -ist, -ih-. For example:
1. Bazhov - narrator of folk legends - collected many amazing stories and recorded them.
2. This welder is a master of his craft!
3. The drummer famously knocks out the rhythms of the new hit!
4. The student must surpass his teacher.
5. Plowman wiped his face with sweat and thoughtfully looked his way into the distance.
6. The lover in the detachment was a sociable cheerful girl with a huge red mop of hair.
7. Nagaev Alexander Petrovich - one of the most talented composers and bayanists in Russia.
8. Doctors tiredly sighed, sadly stroked the baby on the head: "How much more pain and suffering do you have to endure, a crumb?" - whispered.
- Suffix -etc- can characterize the place of residence, the property of a person, the action: a caucasian, a stubborn, a fool, a scar.
Some suffixes not considered above
-out: "Permafrost is blowing from this icy heart."
-est - / - stv: "Youth has always been hot, intolerant of lies and hypocrisy."
-est / -ost-: "The maturity of a person is determined not so much by age, as by wisdom, insight, mind."
-izm - / - of-: "Realism and romanticism were inherent in many world writers."
-nik-: "The samovar, made in the style of Gzhel, looks extravagant in the overall decoration of the kitchen."
-in-: "Sturgeon, like lamb, is loved by gourmets around the world."
-l-, -k-, -l-: "Soap and comb are the best friends of purge."
Education of Adverbs
Answering the question, what words are formed in the suffix way, it should be noted that not only nouns but also other parts of speech were "born". If we add -o to the adjective, we can easily get an adverb. For example, the word "brave" will become "brave-oh," "wise" in "mudra-o," "debt-ou" in "debt-o."
Variants of suffixes, word-forming dialects, are a great variety, since several adverbs occur from the same root, which seem to be frozen forms of nouns with case endings: first, first, first (compare: in the beginning, in the beginning, in the beginning).
Common in the formation of adverbs and numerals
Also adverbs can be formed using the prefix and the suffix -omu, -em, -yh, -ih. Similar words appeared from ordinal numbers. Example:
"Emeralds in the image of Sofia play a new way, they harmoniously look with her evening gown," whispered his wife James in the ear.
" Not only," Kate replied. "Firstly, they approach her eyes, and secondly, they are ideally combined not only with the dress, but also with the rest of the accessories."
Formation of adjectives
In words denoting the quality of an object, the most common are suffixes such as: -wow- / -liv-, -chat-, -owat- / -evat, -n-, -ch-, -n-, -nn-.
- A gentle bluish shade of the sky and cirrus clouds caused in my heart inexplicable calmness and joy. (Bluish: -owat-, pinnate-ishist).
- The bakery, which is located along the road, always beckoned me with its vanilla, warm and tasty flavors. (Bakery: -n-, "vanilla" -n-, "delicious" -n-).
- The booming river boils with life: there is no peace for its inhabitants, until they are wrapped in a quiet channel. (Burlivaya: -live-, "inhabitants" -tel-).
- A light pink bud bloomed almost a month in her garden. (Light: -o; pink: -yes).
As you can see, a lot of words are formed with the help of a large number of suffixes. Today this process continues. People, poets and writers, humorists and businessmen form their own, author's words, letting them into the people where they take root. Thus, the Russian language is constantly developing, replenishing its lexical composition.