All people are daily exposed to stressful situations for various reasons. In some, the organism can withstand the rabid pace of life without serious consequences. The psychic of others is forced to experience enormous loads. Very often she can not cope with them. In this case, they talk about the development of a disease called "psychasthenia". This pathological condition, which is characterized by excessive introspection. The people exposed to him make themselves inflated demands. They are very self-critical, they may have low self-esteem.
Main causes of the disorder
Psychiatry is rightfully recognized as a disease of the XXI century. More and more people in large cities suffer from personal changes. They constantly check, recheck their actions and can not find the strength to change something radically.
The exact causes of the disorder are unknown. Physicians assume that under the influence of certain factors, the pathological process starts and actively develops. Among them are:
- Stress. Almost every modern person is subjected to unrest and emotions. The need to work hard, be successful and meet certain standards - all these are hard tests for the psyche. Without qualitative rest, the nervous system is depleted with time. It ceases to fulfill its primary functions.
- Lack of sleep. A full rest is a guarantee of good work of the central nervous system. Chronic lack of sleep for several months can cause a decrease in immunity, disruption of the brain.
- Hypodinamy. Lack of physical activity entails many problems, including the work of the body.
- Drinking alcohol and smoking. Chronic intoxication of the nervous system leads to its pathology.
- Diseases of the endocrine system and the central nervous system.
- Unfavorable ecological situation. Contaminated air and water, poor quality food worsen human health.
These factors are not uncommon. Their impact can be observed in all developed countries. However, only a small percentage of people diagnosed with psychasthenia. This is due to the second component of the pathological process - the personality characteristics of the patient.
On the way to achieving the goal of psychasthenic disease, the defeat is most feared. Therefore, they do not commit rash or spontaneous acts. On the other hand, the psychasthenic type of personality is characterized by indecisiveness in decision-making, expressed pedantry. Before the beginning of any action, such people carefully plan the plan, and then follow it exactly. If any external factor violates it, they are lost and can completely retreat from it.
Most of the psychasthenics are well-educated and educated people. Despite the intellectual sabotage, they do not like publicity. When you need to speak before the audience, you can completely forget the information, even owning it in full. Such people are hard to make decisions. Therefore, they often seek support and help.
Symptoms of psychasthenia include selectivity in the choice of friends. The circle of communication is rather limited. They interact exclusively with people who have been tested for years. To outsiders are treated with distrust and do not like to communicate because of the fear of being misunderstood.
Punctuality and pedantry are characteristic of the disorder. These qualities often irritate others. However, they are compensated by hard work and trouble-free operation. This is what colleagues use to load psychasthenics with their problems.
Such people are more concerned about their own health. To some extent they can be considered as hypochondriacs. With the passage of time, this kind of suspiciousness degenerates into reactive depression.
How do psychasthenics think?
Today, virtually all medical reference books have detailed information on what constitutes a psychiatric illness. A test of the diagnosis of personality types is often attached to its description. With its help, anyone can determine the likelihood of developing this disorder. What else is interesting?
The thinking of patients with this diagnosis is often striking in its consistency. They are highly susceptible to doubt, so they are carefully approaching problem solving. Always compare the positive and negative sides of the question, applying an incredible amount of effort. It would seem that the logical answer is obvious and lies on the surface. However, internal insecurity does not allow him to discern.
Long thinking is practically not used in practice. Psychasthenics are always intelligent and highly educated people. They are afraid of criticism from the public, so they rarely appear in public. Among them there are no politicians or public figures.
On the other hand, it is not necessary to wait for rash or improvised acts. Because of the characteristics of the disease, such people represent their actions in advance.
The psychasthenic type of personality is characterized by the desire for continuous development. However, even positive dynamics does not satisfy. After reaching the appointed goal, such people begin to look again for that ideal, in comparison with which they feel worthless. This can continue throughout life.
Species of the disorder
There is no official division of the disease into categories. However, in medical practice it is customary to differentiate it according to the following subspecies: anxious (evading) and anankast (obsessive-compulsive) personality disorder. Each of them has certain differences.
When anankastnom personality disorder in humans, obsessive thoughts arise. They constantly think, whether the iron was turned off from the outlet, whether the door was closed. On the other hand, they show unprecedented friendly attitude towards their relatives. When dealing with outsiders, they prefer to behave modestly and emotionlessly. Such individuals show a tendency to different phobias. The development of the latter can occur for absolutely any reasons.
With anxious personality disorder, fear of criticism from outsiders appears. Patients with this form of diagnosis "psychasthenia" should be constantly encouraged and comforted. In no case should you criticize or blame. Otherwise, a constant self-examination can develop into a real depression.
Features of the disorder in children
Symptoms of psychasthenia usually appear in childhood. To be precise, at the beginning of schooling. In the junior classes, there are problems with mechanical memory, which necessarily affects the ability to absorb educational material. Such children constantly recheck the work done, so they lag behind their peers. In public speaking, they are very sensitive to the assessment of others.
At an older age, developed analytical skills help achieve the desired result. Such children can perfectly understand the material, logically generalize the new information. Intellectual talent makes itself felt already in adulthood.
Psychiatry in children develops slowly enough. However, caring parents may notice certain difficulties in establishing contact with classmates, especially with the opposite sex. Such children try to choose only those people who will not be able to bring suffering to them.
Methods of diagnosis
Most often with suspicions of psychasthenia are the relatives of the patient or his close friends. To clarify the preliminary diagnosis, the doctor must first ask a number of clarifying questions. It is important for him to know how the symptoms of the disorder have long appeared, which served as an impetus to the exhaustion of the nervous system.
After that, they pass to instrumental methods of diagnostics. Standard tests of urine and blood are prescribed to all patients, as they allow to assess the functioning of the body as a whole. Additionally, kidney, endocrine and metabolic processes may be required.
Instrumental diagnosis allows you to confirm the assumptions of a specialist or clarify certain points. Among the methods used today, the following are particularly relevant:
- Ultrasound of the thyroid gland.
- Ultrasound of cerebral vessels.
Psychiatry is a complex disease. His clinical picture is similar in many respects to other pathologies. Therefore, in the survey without differential diagnosis is rarely possible to do. It is conducted with other personal manifestations, which can accompany schizophrenia and neurasthenia.
Psychiatry is a serious disease that requires competent therapy. However, finally it can not be cured. This ailment usually accompanies a person until death. With the appropriate approach, it is possible to stop his symptoms, thereby facilitating the patient's life.
The methods of therapeutic treatment can be diverse. Most often, they resort to medications and physiotherapy. In especially serious cases, one can not do without psychotherapy sessions. More details about these techniques will be described below.
Regardless of the chosen course of treatment, any physician will first advise the patient to reconsider his lifestyle. It is necessary to devote more time to rest, to plan the time of sleep correctly. It is better not to abuse physical and emotional loads. A good option is to enroll in a gym or massage. This approach allows not only to remove the accumulated stress, but also to prevent the emergence of a new one.
Application of medicines
Medications used to combat the disease, help eliminate signs of anxiety, suspiciousness and mood swings. Some of them prevent the development of phobias, often persecuting patients diagnosed with "psychasthenia." Drug treatment involves the appointment of the following groups of drugs:
- Vitamins and adaptogenes. Prolonged use of them helps to fill the deficit of neurotransmitters, to restore the body as a whole.
- Sedatives. Treatment begins with the intake of herbal preparations. In the absence of effect, therapy is supplemented by more complex medicines.
- Sleeping pills (Donormil, Barbital, Melaxen). Medicines from this group are allowed to use only according to the prescription of the doctor and under his constant control.
- Antidepressants ("Aminalon", "Sertralin", "Fluoxetine").
- Neuroleptics ("Propazin", "Azaleptin"). To help these drugs have to resort to the most severe cases. Dosage and duration of treatment are determined strictly by the doctor.
To restore the nervous system as soon as possible, it is recommended to take vitamin complexes. They contribute to the improvement of adaptation processes, prevention of complications.
The treatment of psychasthenia can not be imagined without physiotherapy. This is a series of completely safe and effective procedures. They not only increase the effect on the body of medicines, but also support basic therapy.
- Electrostimulation. This procedure implies the influence of an electric current on certain areas of the body.
- Electrophoresis. Used for deeper penetration of medicines into the layers of the skin. As a result, the body's need for a medicine is reduced, and the duration of its therapeutic effect is increased.
- Electrosleep. Provides a calming effect. This procedure is prescribed for patients suffering from chronic fatigue and mental overload.
The listed procedures are characterized by high efficiency. However, their help should be resorted only after consultation with the attending physician.
Various types of psychotherapy are also used to treat psychasthenia. Thanks to regular sessions, the patient begins to accept herself. Gradually, he develops the skills of successful socialization. Such treatment allows you to find your place in life, and use personal characteristics for the benefit of self-improvement. A specific type of psychotherapy is selected taking into account the individual characteristics of the patient. The best result is given by sessions, conducted simultaneously with the course of drug intervention.
Prognosis for recovery
The treatment of psychasthenia is a long process. Unfortunately, it is not possible to overcome this illness forever. The proposed methods of therapeutic influence allow only to correct its symptoms, improve the patient's worldview. Complex treatment helps to bring the psychasthenic to the level of a practically healthy person. Its absence can lead to disastrous consequences.
The disorder often grows into all kinds of obsessions. At the same time, psychasthenics begin to abandon new activities and initiatives. They live either in the past or in a fictitious future. Over time, this existence is complicated by unreasonable anxiety, anxiety. There is distrust of others, skepticism. Neurasthenia and psychasthenia are borderline states. The consequences of such violations can be sexual disorders, alcoholism, protracted depression.