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Preventing bad habits: a model of risk factors and protection

Problems of adolescent dependence are acute today and require immediate resolution, as well as participation in preventive work of all representatives of the government and the public. Primary prevention of bad habits is most effective. It is at a stage when children only learn about the possibility of using psychoactive substances or make the first samples. Specialists have long been studying this issue. In the world practice there are several models of preventive work.

The most effective model is the risk and protection factors . Prevention of bad habits is based on leveling the risk factors that exacerbate the emergence of dependencies, and, on the contrary, strengthening the protective factors that contribute to the formation of a reduced propensity to use psychoactive substances. There are several groups of factors.

Group of personal factors. How successful is the teenager in implementing his plans? Does it realize its life prospects? How does it apply to the use of tobacco, alcohol or drugs? How does it relate to violence? Can he resist group pressure? What is the value system formed by the adolescent? How much is self-esteem developed? Positive or negative answers to these questions give an idea of the formation of a schoolchild's personal exposure to bad habits.

The group of family factors includes the system of distribution of roles, as well as rights and duties in the family. The level of conflict among family members, the established system of relationships, the level of child-parental trust, the discrepancy between the mutual expectations of children and parents, the family structure and the culture of a healthy lifestyle is an incomplete list of causes that affect the formation of dependent behavior of children.

Not irrelevant is the meaningful environment of the teenager. The attitude of the adolescent group to the use of surfactants, values and hierarchy of relationships dictate a certain behavior.

In addition, school risk factors play a role in the self-determination of schoolchildren. School failure leads to a desire to assert itself in another area of activity. If the student could not feel the situation of success in mastering the sciences or in additional education, he will escape from the school environment and seek ways of self-realization. Another similar risk factor is the attitude of teachers and classmates, the status of a schoolboy in a peer group.

Prevention of bad habits should be aimed at reducing risk factors, among which at present the most significant: school disadaptation, which began at the younger school age; Violation of child-parent relations, family disadaptation, low effectiveness of personal resources.

Here it should be noted and the fact that prevention of bad habits is directly related to the theory of coping behavior of the individual (coping behavior). The theory is based on the concept of stress and behavioral strategies of the individual to cope with stressful situations. In total, three main coping strategies are singled out: solving problems, finding social support and avoiding problems. In each concrete life situation, a person uses a certain coping strategy of behavior. However, the choice of strategy should be effective in relation to this situation. For example, in one stressful situation one must be able to solve the problem independently, and in the other, it is better to seek support from the society.

Prevention of bad habits in school should be built on modern approaches to preventive work. Intimidating schoolchildren with scary shots about drug addicts or stories about black lung smokers has not yielded positive results for many years. Sometimes pedagogical prophylaxis only provokes interest of teenagers to tobacco or alcohol. Therefore, measures to prevent bad habits are more efficient to build with regard to risk factors and protection.

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