Perforation of the nasal septum is a through hole in the nasal septum (bone or cartilaginous part of it), which occurs against the background of its mechanical damage or ongoing painful processes. For a long period such a pathology may not manifest itself, but all this time the probability of occurrence of problems with breathing or infection is increased.
Symptomatic of the disease
A small perforation of the nasal septum proceeds, as a rule, imperceptibly. In most cases, the symptomatology of the disease is as follows:
- nasal congestion;
- Difficulty breathing;
- Crust formation in the perforation area;
- Purulent discharge, which are accompanied by an unpleasant odor (arise with increasing perforation of the septum);
- A feeling of dryness, tenderness, discomfort;
- Whistling sound when exhaled and inhaled with the nose;
- Nosebleeds ;
- External deformation of the nose (for example, with a large hole, the back of the nose looks like a failed one).
If the above symptoms appear, the patient is advised to immediately contact the medical institution for detailed diagnosis and immediate application of complex therapy.
Perforation of the nasal septum, which is treated by surgical intervention, is diagnosed by examining the nasal cavity (rhinoscopy) by an otolaryngologist. The ENT appoints a comprehensive examination to identify the nature of the existing structural disorder, which is most often the result of a purulent process caused by another disease. In passing, additional examinations and tests (for blood, syphilis, etc.) can be prescribed.
Perforation of the nasal septum, located close to the nostrils, often worries the patient due to the dryness of this area of the nose.
Depth localization can only be determined by medical examination. To hope that the perforation of the nasal septum, whose reviews are of a frightening nature, will last and disappear without a trace by itself, is meaningless. People suffering from this pathology claim that the opening only increases, forming an ever larger cavity in the nasal cavity . Therefore, you should not waste precious time, but should seek help from a qualified surgeon in a timely manner.
Causes of perforation in the nasal cavity
The causes of perforation of the nasal septum:
- Infection, causing the destruction of cartilage tissue (such as: syphilis, staphylococcus, tuberculosis);
- Purulent foci;
- Nasal trauma, frequent mechanical damage left untreated by hematoma;
- The appearance of malignant neoplasms in the nasal septum;
- Frequent use of vasoconstrictive drugs (sprays or drops);
- Systemic diseases that negatively affect the connective tissue (renal failure, lupus erythematosus, sarcoidosis, polychondria, rheumatoid arthritis, asculitis);
- Taking narcotics injected through the nasal passages (chronic cocaine use, causing regular irritation and causing penetration of infectious agents, can completely destroy the internal structure of the nose) ;
- Dry atrophic rhinitis;
- Complications after surgical interventions in the nasal area or performing an operation by an inexperienced specialist;
- Constant exposure to the nasal cavity of toxic substances due to non-compliance with safety procedures during the production process.
Perforation of nasal septum: preventive measures
Prevention of perforation of the septum of the nose is:
- Annual medical check-ups;
- Early diagnosis;
- Timely treatment of infectious and chronic respiratory diseases;
- The use of drugs in full compliance with the instructions;
- A reasonable approach to the choice of a qualified surgeon in the conduct of nasal plasty.
Perforation of nasal septum: treatment
At home, the perforation of the nasal septum can not be treated. The only correct method to get rid of this is surgical intervention. To date, in surgery, several techniques are used to eliminate the perforation of the nasal cavity, which are used depending on the size of the through hole. The Tardi method is used with a hole diameter of up to 5 cm and is carried out by closing the mucosa with a flap. Small perforations are removed by sewing their edges. Correction of larger defects is done with artificial or implant implants.
The operation of the perforation of the nasal septum is carried out under both general and local anesthesia, depending on the patient's health condition and his wishes for using the method of anesthesia. In itself, such a surgical intervention is not dangerous; With all the recommendations of the doctor regarding the hygiene of the nasal cavity, the risk of complications is minimized. The average cost of surgery, depending on the complexity of the case and the degree of qualification of the surgeon is from 150 to 500 thousand rubles.
Treatment of perforation of the nasal septum is not only to restore its integrity, but also to eliminate the cause of this problem, as well as to comply with the recommendations of the doctor in the prevention of possible complications or the re-occurrence of septal defects.
With surgical removal of perforation, the patient stays in the hospital (depending on his state of health) for 3-5 days. The first day after the operation there is a discharge of bloody mucus. Tampons from the nose are removed after a day; Supporting the septum and the membrane of the gasket remain for a certain time.
To maintain the gasket in the wet state and to facilitate the suction of the precipitates that are formed, during the next 10 days the patient needs to inject isotonic saline solutions into the nasal cavity. To avoid the formation of crusts with cotton buds, it is necessary to lubricate the mucosa with antibacterial ointments. The first month after the operation, you can not blow your nose.
The rehabilitation period is the following:
- Compliance with the doctor's recommendations for the care of the operated area of the face;
- Sparing regimen for 1 month after surgery, excluding physical exertion, mechanical injuries and injuries to the nose, as well as significant temperature changes;
- Prevention of the use of vasoconstrictor drugs;
- Compliance with diet, refusal of alcoholic beverages, caution in taking cold and hot food for 2 weeks from the time of surgery.
Consequences of non-treatment of perforation
If the perforation of the nasal septum is not treated, abnormalities of the olfactory character and reflex disorders can occur: spasms of the larynx, malfunctions in the cardiovascular system, coughing and sneezing, headaches, eye diseases, epilepsy.
Perforation of the nasal septum, the consequences of which, when not treated, lead only to deterioration of health, is treated exclusively by the surgical method. Independent therapy (aerosols, ointments, moisturizers) is only able to temporarily alleviate the situation.