Bryansk Automobile Plant in the Soviet era was almost a closed enterprise. Officially there were produced heavy caterpillar tractors. The second and main direction of this plant was the production of military equipment. Already from the middle of the 1960s, principally new triaxial floating chassis with all-wheel drive was designed and built.
Such a scheme with three spaced bridges allowed to continue to move even if one of the blocks failed. The most popular basis for placing "light" military systems was the rear-engine series BAZ-5937. This modification with onboard transmission and extreme steerable wheels was used for the production of self-propelled machines, complexes "Wasp", "Tochka".
Chassis BAZ-5937 have a semi-enclosed body, reliably protected from water ingress, it is made of steel. In its frontal part there is a control unit, in the middle there is a camera for specific equipment, and in the stern there is a combined motor-transmission compartment.
The built-in frame, the lid reinforcement elements, the stiffeners and the struts are the parts that give the body characteristics for additional strength. Stability and movement afloat is guaranteed by a pair of water jet aggregates. Transport means of the first series differ markedly in the specific dull form of the nose. It is worth adding that these machines are not equipped with side windows in the cabin, and this limits the overview and can provoke a traffic accident. The identical arrangement of the base axles is associated with the desire to evenly distribute the wheel loads, as well as increase the passability of the considered chassis.
To control the turning radius of the wheel, the wheels on the outer axles are directional. Such a scheme reduced resistance in curvilinear motion. The military car BAZ-5937 has a six-cylinder diesel power unit 5D20B-300 (manufactured by the Barnaul Transport Machine-Building Plant).
The engine's power was three hundred horsepower, a liquid-type cooling system is used. The structural feature of the location of the radiator is its horizontal mounting above the motor. The installation is started in a double way: by an electric starter or by supplying air from a high-pressure cylinder.
Transmission and gearbox
Transmission BAZ-5937 is equipped with a built-in differential, the torque is transmitted with the help of mechanics, there is an on-board scheme of power dispersal. The transmission unit is aimed at interacting with the wheels of both sides.
The block of a suspension bracket of wheels - independent type, torsion, is equipped by cross-section levers. This design makes it possible to significantly improve the smoothness of the course, as well as to develop a high-speed index for off-road and rough terrain. The wheels are equipped with an air pressure adjustment system. The brake unit is a shoal, sealed package with reinforcement by pneumatic hydraulics.
This structural unit has a worm-type operation principle with a hydraulic booster, the buoyancy of the means is provided by the chokes of the water chutes and directly the wheels. The indicator of the carrying capacity of the chassis is in the range of 7.5 tons. At the same time, the maximum speed of traffic along the roads is 70 km / h, afloat - 8 kilometers per hour.
The additional equipment available on the basis of the chassis BAZ-5937:
- General-purpose filtration unit.
- Heat-ventilation system OB-65G.
- The nodes of water discharge.
- Tank intercoms "R-124".
- Automatic fire protection system "Rosa".
- Devices for radiation reconnaissance and special information processing.
- Observation instruments "TNPO170A" for movement on water, a night vision device.
In addition, on the basis of the chassis, an autonomous power supply with a gas turbine was installed.
When reviewing the military vehicle BAZ-5937, the technical characteristics of which allowed it to be used both for army purposes and in the field of natural disasters, a number of indicators should be noted. These include the following:
- Equipping with sixteen cardan shafts, transmitting torque to single-stage side and wheel gears.
- Presence of a dry two-disk clutch and power take-off to the generator, pump and compressor.
- All six wheels are equipped with a wide-profile chamber rubber "ID-B284" (1200 * 500/508).
- There is a system for adjusting the internal pressure in the tires (1-4 kgf / sq. Cm).
- The fuel tank is placed on the left front of the rear wheel, its capacity is 320 liters.
To understand which gearbox is used on the BAZ-5937, it should be noted that it is of a mechanical type, has five stages, is interconnected with a dual-mode dispensing system, which is equipped with a symmetrical interlip differential with interlocking.
The starting parties had shortened hulls and a flat frontal panel, while the light elements were mounted in protective fences from the sides of the control compartment. With the development of serial production, the only external changes of the BAZ-5937 machine were an elongated frontal sharp-nosed part of the skeleton with installed headlights, as well as additional windows of the cabin at the corners, allowing to increase visibility.
Combines all options of a single gauge size - 2.27 m, ground clearance - 43 cm, turning radius - 12 m. The technique successfully crossed the ditches of two meters, a thirty-degree rise. The average fuel consumption is about 40 liters per hundred kilometers.
Prototypes of the technique in question were developed in 1969-1970. The serial release was officially approved in 1972. The final modifications were tested for leaks in a special rain chamber or on open water bodies. The standard disadvantages of all machines include increased tire wear and low profitability of the power plant.
As evidenced by the owners' reviews, the BAZ-5937, described above, proved to be a reliable vehicle on land and water. His mission was not limited to the transportation of light and special military equipment. Due to its high maneuverability, the technique is widely used to eliminate the consequences of accidents and natural disasters.
The demand for many years for a special vehicle produced at the Bryansk Automobile Plant, provided a reliable design, a wide range of applications, the possibility of using it on land and water.