Liver, breast, placenta biopsy - basic information about these procedures

The word "biopsy" to date, heard almost everyone, but not everyone knows what is hidden under this term. In general, a biopsy is one of the minimally invasive methods of investigation, in which a small piece of tissue is taken from a particular organ with a thin long needle for further careful examination under a microscope.

Liver biopsy

Today a lot of medical discussions are devoted to liver biopsy. Doctors can not agree on whether all patients with hepatitis need to do this procedure.

However, the question is clearly resolved in favor of this procedure in many clinics of different countries.

Liver biopsy is a minimally invasive procedure in which a small area for diagnostic studies is extracted from the patient's liver.

A liver biopsy is performed in several ways:

  1. The cavity method consists in carrying out a biopsy through a small incision of the skin and inserting a biopsy needle through it.
  2. Laparoscopic method - safer and more accurate method, because With the help of a laparoscope, the doctor sees the liver on the monitor screen. Accordingly, there is less risk of injury to neighboring organs and vascular bundles, and the result is more accurate.
  3. Transvenous liver biopsy is carried out through large venous vessels, in case the patient has disorders in the blood coagulation system.

A liver biopsy has its positive and negative sides, which is why it can not be used as a screening diagnostic method.

As for the positive moments, it is:

  • A reliable result for a short period of time;
  • An absolutely accurate indicator of the state of the hepatic tissue.

However, like any surgical intervention, liver biopsy is fraught with a number of complications, such as:

  • Damage to large vessels, a number of located organs;
  • Secondary infection;
  • Morbidity in the postoperative period;
  • Development of bleeding.

Undoubtedly, one should take into account the fact that a biopsy is taken from one or several sites, but no one will guarantee that it is pathological tissue. Of course, if the doctor knows in advance where the education is located and what exactly is needed to take the material from it, the result will be reliable, but in other cases it will not be so.

Breast biopsy

Breast biopsy is a method of diagnosing the pathological processes of the breast by examining the site of its tissue.

To date, a breast biopsy is performed almost every third woman, because the incidence of mammary glands is steadily increasing.

Applicants for the procedure are women with identified areas of increased echogenicity in ultrasound, with suspicion of breast cancer after mammography, with palpable nodular formations of the mammary glands or pathological discharge from the ducts. In cases where there are visible changes in the area of the mammary glands (clinical signs of cancer), a biopsy without a mammogram is possible.

Breast biopsy can be given in several ways, depending on the degree of tissue damage. In some situations, biopsy results in the removal of the node or formation.

Biopsy of the placenta

Biopsy of the placenta is one way of monitoring the fetus, but it is very dangerous. The risk of spontaneous abortion after a biopsy is about 2% - this is not enough. Placentocentesis is performed in the second trimester of pregnancy and strictly according to indications, when the doctor has suspicions of a severe pathology of the fetus. Negative point in this situation is that even for medical reasons abortion in this period is very dangerous for the mother, and very few people agree to this.

However, this method is very informative and helps to identify many congenital malformations and diseases. In some situations after placental biopsy, it is recommended that women consult with a geneticist for further management of pregnancy and childbirth.

With the help of biopsy of the placenta, you can establish the sex of the future baby and assess the similarity of the DNA of the father and the unborn child, as well as determine the content of viruses and bacteria in the fetal blood.

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