The Izborsk fortress, built of stone, is recognized as an outstanding memorial ensemble of Russian defense architecture. The walls of the structure withstood many enemy sieges for their existence, never yielding to the invaders-the Livonian knights.
The huge fortresses of ancient Rus, which have survived to us, like the one in Izborsk, astonish the contemplators with their might. In the fortress walls of antiquity is read great determination to defend their lands. Make you admire the unique Russian character. Infuse respect for the unbending will and stoic spirit of Rusich.
Izborsk: history and sights
The oldest Russian settlement - the city of Izborsk - at the present time is considered a major village bordering on the west with Pskov. In its vicinity are the famous Slovenian keys and Gorodischenskoe Lake.
This place in the eighth-tenth century was inhabited by the Slavic tribe - krivichi. Tradition claims that originally the town was called Slovenian (by the name of the founder). The present name of the settlement appeared much later. The first mention of it was found in the annals.
Then these lands owned the Varangian prince Truvor, who was the younger brother of the legendary Ryurik. Truvorovo ancient settlement was preserved on the territory of ancient Izborsk. The ancient settlement is spread on a small pointed plateau, abruptly breaking over the Gorodischensky lake.
On the water system connected with the city, in the old days a trade route was laid, requiring protection. For its safety, the townspeople built outposts on the banks of the Obdekh River. In the 10th century, Izborsk began to take positions. The status of the shopping center is gradually moving to Pskov.
However, the military importance remains enormous. Its historical past is closely intertwined with the Novgorod-Pskov lands. In the XIV century, the city will be renewed with powerful fortress walls. The fortress never fell under the onslaught of the Livonian knights.
To date, the ancient town has transformed into a village where Pskov's sights are preserved , photos and descriptions of which contain multiple sources. Tourists are interested in not too damaged fortress, they go to the Slovenian keys and in Truvorovo hillfort.
Erection of the Izborsk fortress
It is natural that a new city was founded on the Gracelia mountain. In the siege period in the fortress of Izborsk did not fit all the inhabitants. The attacks of the Livonian knights did not cease. The activities of the Livonian Order foreshadowed new battles, the victory in which meant one thing - the independence of the Russian lands. The problem of constructing powerful fortifications was acute.
The Pskovites and izborians with a native stone fortified the city. The fortress, built from calcareous slabs formed in the Paleozoic era, was an impressive sight. After all, local limestones of dark gray shades are not porous and friable, but dolomitized and excessively dense.
The new defense line, as well as the outpost of Truvorov fortified settlement, was erected for reasons of advantageous location - on a high level plateau. On the northern, southern and eastern sides of the ancient fortress was impregnable because of the natural steep cliffs formed dolomite slabs, and a huge ravine. From the high cape, cutting into the coast of Smolka and hanging over Izbor hollow, picturesque panoramic views are opened.
Before the erection of fortifications on the plateau, they marked out their layout. The fortress walls grew along the edge of the mountain plateau, above the precipice. The natural base of powerful rocks allowed to build incredibly high walls. Convex reinforcement exactly repeated the local relief, protecting the site of maximum size. The besieged fortress, the photo of which amazes with its beauty, housed not only the people of Posad, but also the population of the surrounding villages.
In the middle of the fourteenth century, the fortification was an impressive outpost. The triangular plateau along the entire perimeter was surrounded by gigantic stone walls. In the XV century the building undergoes a significant reconstruction. Perestroika is caused by firearms that did not exist until then, replaced by the tactics of sieges and defensive actions.
First of all, the towers were transformed, where the innovations of military equipment were placed. Then they further strengthened the north side. However, these alterations did not make significant changes to the original appearance of the structure.
An indestructible colossus is a fortress. Her photos are presented in our article. From the place where Truvorovo settlement is located, the outpost seemed to have grown out of a gigantic rock, becoming an inalienable continuation of it.
The chronicles reflect the enormous importance of this defense structure. They described a bright episode. The clergymen made the procession along the "wall". Next to the towers and the gates, they celebrated the prayers. So the confessors consecrated the city, the fortress, saving a scrap of Russian land from enemies.
Description of the fortress
The majestic Izborsk fortress, erected on the top of the Giravia mountain, looks like a triangle, the corners of which are rounded. Unstoppable it makes two steep cliffs and specially excavated ditches. The grandiose calcareous walls are long at 623 m, the height fluctuating in the range of 7-10 m, and 4 m thick.
This fortification was originally a perfection that does not require restructuring. It was only made minor adjustments, allowing the introduction of technical and military innovations that appear in this or that century. The fortress, which now enters the sights of Pskov, photos and descriptions of which are quite accessible, developed and changed as the ancient town grew.
In the fortress get over the Nikolsky Zahab - narrowed extended corridor, which is equipped with a southern wall. The first thing that appears before the visitors is the Nikola Temple, crowned with a silver dome. In ancient times, the locals referred to the settlement "The City of St. Nicholas", and the cathedral was called "his house". This gives Nikolsky's temple a special significance.
In addition to it, there are a lot of other important buildings, the Izborsk fortress. The map clearly indicates the location of each of them.
The Tower of Lukovka
Kukovka (and this name is in Lukovka) is the most mysterious tower. This is the only tower structure, embedded inside a thick fortified fence. The tower has been preserved since the times when the Izborsk fortress was a wooden outpost.
Much later it becomes literally a "fortress in the fortress". She was given the role of the last refuge, if the enemy takes possession of the main defensive structure. At the bottom of Lukovka an archway was created, which once acted as an arsenal - a powder storehouse.
In addition, she was assigned the function of the sentinel site. The top of Kukovka is equipped with a viewing platform, from where panoramic pictures of the nearest surroundings open. Lukovka, having undergone multiple reconstructions, lost its original internal appearance, created in ancient times. But the panoramas remained practically the same.
The Tower of Tallah
The Tower of Tálava is a rectangular structure, adjacent to the eponymous Zahab, which in olden times carried an eerie name, the "corridor of death." The entrance and exit of the passage closed the gate. The enemy, having overcome the outer gates, fell into a narrow trap, in which he was overtaken by an inevitable defeat.
Towers Ryabinovka and Temnushka
Ryabinovka is a hexagonal defensive structure of a frightening kind. Darken silhouette is similar to Ryabinovka. Both towers took the main enemy blow, applied from the west. Namely, from here, as it seemed to the enemy, from the most accessible side, it is necessary to attack a gigantic fortress.
The Bell Tower
The traditional fortification, dating back to the early gunshot era, is represented by the Bell Tower. The structure was equipped with an alarm bell that informed of the arrival of "uninvited guests" - enemy troops. A rumbling rumble, issued by the bell, reached Pskov.
And of course, the Izborsk fortress is equipped with a tall tower. The tower is an overview post. His crown was once crowned with a watchtower, made of wood and consisting of two tiers. Practically vprithirku with the tower of stones laid cross - the inspirer of the soldiers of the outpost and intimidation for the enemy.
Narrow corridors-the passages-Nikolsky and Talavsky-were excellent obstacles to the penetration of enemy forces through the outer gates to the fortress. In addition, they played the role of a dangerous trap. Locking the enemy in a tiny space, from which there was no move, they led to the inevitable death of the invaders.
In the kyot of the Korsunsky Chapel, it was inscribed in the Old Slavonic language the name of the architect of the building, the architect and artist A. I.Vladovkago. And on the site of the burned wooden cathedral of Sergiy Radonezhsky the temple complex of Sergiy and Nikandra was rebuilt. It so happened that the new ensemble was taken out of the fortress.
Places of interest in Trouva
An ancient settlement is named in honor of Prince Truvor, ruling the Izborsk lands. The first defensive structure, surrounded by gullies, which ceased to meet the requirements of wartime, was transferred to the neighboring rock - Gerau mountain. In the place of the ancient outpost, an ancient cemetery has been preserved.
At the end of the gloomy ancient necropolis there is a huge cross, built of stone. On its surface are inscribed letters, which are practically erased under the influence of time. The Izborsk fortress is amazing, its history was covered with unfounded myths. In particular, there are two legends about the cross that have the right to exist.
One argues that the cross is an attribute of an ancient outpost, the first settlement that laid the foundation for the defense of Rus. According to another legend, the cross is placed on the grave of Prince Truvor, whose body is lowered for resting to a depth exceeding two meters.
In a word, a giant stone pedestal is the keeper of the secrets of the fortress, whose roots have been put into antiquity. Next to the monument are old plates, covered with incomprehensible geometric ornaments. There is a suggestion that military graves are hidden under the "Babylons".
The temple in the Troodorovo hillfort
Near the cemetery is a hill, the top of which is crowned with the church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker. The sight of its white-stone walls, dotted with black crosses, is frightening, especially in the dusk. Originally, this place was a wooden church, which was later replaced with a stone church. A huge stone is erected a few steps from the sanctuary - a symbol of truce with the Estonians.
River of Life
In the valley of the hill, in the place where the border of the Truvorov fortress merges with the foot of the Giravia mountain, from the cliff formed by dense limestones, beats many thousands of Slovenian keys. They, merging with each other, formed a sonorous stream, nicknamed "The River of Life".
The crystal waters of the stream swiftly rush to the Gorodischensky Lake. The waters of the keys are historically attributed to miraculous possibilities, the possession of a holy healing power. The keys are formed by twelve jets, which are given the names of the months.