The world economy requires the harmonious development of each country. This is a guarantee of well-being and well-being of every person. Historically, different territories produce certain types of products. This allows them to exchange surpluses of their productions for goods that are scarce for them, manufactured by other countries. So there is an equalization of resources on the planet.
является такой формой развития мировых экономик, при которой на определенных территориях происходит дифференциация и выделение отдельных технологических процессов, подотраслей и отраслей производства. The international specialization of labor is a form of development of the world economies, in which differentiation and separation of individual technological processes, sub-sectors and industries takes place in certain territories.
отдельно взятых государств на создании определенных видов услуг, товаров, технологий, которые востребованы мировым сообществом. The international division of labor is the specialization of individual states on the creation of certain types of services, goods, technologies that are in demand in the world community.
In the process of developing trade relations between the countries, three logical varieties of forms of this process developed. These include the general, individual and private division of labor. In the first case, there is an industry specialization. It is carried out by the industrial areas and economic sectors of the country.
Private division of labor occurs with the development of specialization in certain types of finished products or services. The single form of the presented process represents the preferential production of individual parts, components or assemblies. It is considered one of the most promising areas of development.
States participating in the international system of the division of labor can receive greater economic benefits to cover their own needs in tangible and intangible benefits.
Initially, the specialization of the international level was of a purely inter-branch nature. At the same time, the exchange took place between one main industry (industry) and the other (agriculture). This process was typical for the 70-80-ies of the XIX century.
приобрели свой сегодняшний вид. Knowing this, try to explain how the division of labor and specialization have acquired their present form. This is not difficult, if you go into the historical processes. Gradually the shift of specialization took place in the direction of intra-industry exchange. A big shift occurred in the 30s of the last century. At that time, the exchange began to take place between one significant industry (for example, machine building) and another (for example, chemical production).
In the 70-80s of the twentieth century, intra-industry specialization became a priority. Scientific and technological progress determined the peculiarities of trade. Technological and pozzular specialization was especially widespread. In developed countries with market economies, such products in exports are at least 40%.
Indicators of the level of development
определяется несколькими основными показателями. The international specialization of labor is determined by several key indicators. The most common of these is the coefficient of development of the international division of labor. It shows the country's weight in world trade, which is compared with the share of the same state in the national income of all countries. If the indicator exceeds 1, this indicates a high (comparable to the average) participation of the country in world exchange processes.
An entire system of indicators is used to assess the participation of the international specialization of production. These include the coefficient of relative specialization of industrial production. It is obtained by comparing the relative weight of each commodity in foreign trade.
Also to the presented indicators is the coefficient of the country's share in the international turnover of components, parts. Further, the export quota and the range (assortment) of imported and exported goods are estimated.
Dividing countries into groups
на статус каждого государства. From the first half of the twentieth century, one can see how the division of labor and the specialization of activities influenced the status of each state. As a result, all countries were divided into 3 separate groups. The first of these included countries that specialize in manufacturing products through the manufacturing industry. The second group included states, the main part of which was exporting the extractive industry. At the same time, a group of countries specializing in the cultivation of agricultural products stood out.
Currently, the fourth group is also singled out. It includes countries that supply the world market with the products of all three groups listed. These are developed countries, for example the USA, England, France, Canada, etc.
Specialization of countries in groups
Thanks to the established ties in the world market, a number of countries with a certain export orientation are singled out. позволили этим государствам поставлять высокотехнологичное оборудование, станки, машины, бытовую технику и химические компоненты. Their division of labor, specialization of production allowed these states to supply high-tech equipment, machinery, machinery, household appliances and chemical components. For example, aircraft are manufactured and sold by the USA, France, Germany, Italy, and high-class cars - Japan, Sweden, Germany, the USA, etc.
The second group includes the states in whose territory the powerful mineral resources are being developed. These countries are minimally processing such raw materials. This includes the oil producing regions of Africa, the Middle East, etc. Various minerals (coal, ore, gold, etc.) are sold to Sweden, Canada, Australia.
The countries of Asia, Latin America and Africa are in the third group of countries that sell purely agricultural products on the world market. Such products can also be supplied to the world market by developed countries, for example, Canada, countries of Western Europe, Australia, etc.
Purpose of specialization
Stable development can provide international specialization. каждой страны может увеличиваться благодаря концентрации ресурсов на посильных направлениях производства различной продукции. The productivity of each country's labor can increase due to the concentration of resources in the feasible directions of production of various products. Thus it is possible to achieve high quality of the goods on which the state specializes.
Such processes hamper the emergence of a single monoculture of the economy. Each country creates its own specific economic complex, the direction of its activities. However, a positive effect is possible only in economically developed countries. Developing national economies, on the contrary, in such conditions slide down to a narrow specialization, a monotonous focus of activity.
In this regard, international specialization should stimulate developing countries to establish a multi-sectoral structure of the economy. The leadership of these countries should choose the optimal ratio of industries. Although these settings in reality are difficult to implement.
формируется при участии ряда факторов. The concept of specialization of labor is formed with the participation of a number of factors. Primarily, it affects the existing and projected for commissioning of production capacity, the number and quality of labor resources, their development.
The second factor that influences the development of specialization is the level of national income. Also here are the processes of accumulation and consumption within the economy of the state.
The next factor is climatic conditions, soil, minerals. We take into account the existing economic ties, their possible development. The more favorable factors are determined in a particular state, the more balanced is its participation in the specialization and division of labor at the international level.
Modern world specialization
стала результатом множества изменений в промышленной и сельскохозяйственной деятельности международного сообщества. The modern world specialization of labor was the result of many changes in the industrial and agricultural activities of the international community. The main issues that have been solved by world production in the past few decades have been the pursuit of increased profits, a reduction in costs, and the search for cheap labor.
All these factors led to the creation of industries with high-tech production cycles. They offer the consumer in the world market competitive, quality products. These industries are considered to be the main carriers of world specialization.
Each state is known for its directions in creating new products and services.
Specialization of the countries of the world
определилась в последние несколько лет. The modern specialization of labor has been determined in the last few years. It singled out a number of major suppliers of various high-tech equipment, goods and services on the world market.
Today, the main suppliers of cars and trucks are in the USA General Motors, Chrysler, in Germany Volkswagen, Opel, in France Renault, Peugeot, in England Rolls-Royce and Etc.
Japan has taken a leading position in the world-class machine building industry. It is known for such brands as Mitsubishi, Toyota. Virtually all of these countries are leaders in the sales of electronic equipment. This testifies to the high influence of transnational companies on the structure of world production. им также подвластна. The specialization of labor is also subject to them.