Sports and FitnessEquipment

Hunting cartridge. Hunting ammunition 12 caliber

The hunting cartridge differs from combat by the difference in the stopping effect of the bullet and the death rate of the defeat. Although firearms have been known since the fourteenth century, for a very long time, military weapons practically did not differ from hunting weapons. With the development of weapons business, the differences became more pronounced: in the design, the systems of locks, trunks, killing power and range of target destruction.


At the dawn of the firearm, the cartridge resembled a "designer", which should quickly, in a strictly defined order, "collect" on the battlefield and have time to shoot it out before the enemy. Separately, powder was poured into the barrel, then a bullet was pushed into it, then the wick was lit, and finally a shot sounded.

The cartridge itself is defined as a small arms ammunition, which is recharged in one step. The definition of "unitary" means that the ammunition carries a shell (bullet, buckshot, shot), a certain amount of gunpowder and a primer (a flammable element) inside the cartridge. In the design, there may be additional details in the form of a container (concentrator), in which a fraction or a bumper is packed.

12 gauge cartridge

Despite the amazing variety of hunting weapons, the most common ammunition for them are hunting cartridges of 12 calibers. This figure means that from a piece of lead weighing one pound, you can make twelve bullets.

Popularity is simple, they are universal and suitable for hunting:

  • Waterfowl - goose, duck,
  • Forest game - black grouse, wood grouse, partridge, hazel grouse;
  • A small beast - a fox, a hare;
  • Medium - a wild boar, a wolf, a roe deer.

This caliber is widely used and for sporting purposes.

Types of cartridges

Hunting ammunition 12 calibers are divided into several types depending on the following characteristics:

  1. According to the material from which the sleeves are made:
  • Metal;
  • Paper;
  • Plastic.

2. By type of gunpowder:

  • smoky;
  • smokeless.

3. By type of charge:

  • Buckshot;
  • fraction;
  • bullet.

In addition, there are differences and as a fraction, it can be steel or lead. Hunting cartridge is standard or with increased powder charge. For each type of hunting a certain type of equipment is selected.

An important indicator for the ammunition will be the length of the cartridge case. Here, too, there are nuances for each type of charge:

  • Shotgun cartridges of 12 caliber, the length of the sleeve: 65 mm, 70 mm, 76 mm, 89 mm. They are used in smooth-bore weapons for hunting waterfowl, forest game, medium and small animals.
  • Cartridge cartridges of 12 caliber, the length of the sleeve: 65 mm, 70 mm, 76 mm. Used in smooth-bore weapons for hunting medium-sized animals.
  • Bullet cartridges of 12 caliber, the length of the sleeve: 65 mm, 70 mm, 76 mm. Used in smooth-bore weapons for hunting large animals.

The cartel and the shot are very similar in appearance and are made from similar materials. The main difference in size. Fraction is called small balls with a diameter of 1.5 mm to 5 mm, all that is larger, called grapes. Crushers of high quality are centered, in shape - the right sphere, inside there are no voids. Classification of the fraction divides it into 16 sizes (in Russia). The smallest - with a diameter of 1.25 mm, has the number 12, the largest - 5.00 mm, its number is 0000. Each subsequent number entails a change in the size of the diameter of the fraction by 0.25 mm.

Cartridges for hunting weapons with grains are used for large and medium-sized beasts. The shotgun is represented by a large shot with a diameter from 5.25 mm to 10.00 mm.

Choice of cartridges

Depending on the game for hunting choose the type of projectile:

  • Hunting cartridges shot. For a charge, a shot with a diameter of 1.5 mm to 5 mm is used. For hunting for waterfowl, forest game.
  • Cartridge cartridges. For a charge, use buckshot (large shot) with a diameter of more than 5 mm. They hunt for a small animal.
  • Bullet cartridges. Bullets are used in several types: arrows with a tail-stabilizer, round, turbine (thanks to its design use the flow of counter-air), arrow-turbine. On a large beast. This is not a complete list of bullets produced in the world, they can not be accurately counted. There is a common in all countries system of names of bullets for sports and hunting weapons. Provided a special simplified abbreviation. The decoding of the name indicates the type of bullet and its design features. For example, the letters on the "FMJ" pool indicate that the projectile has an all-metal shell. This type is used in sports and hunting.

Marking helps to select the right cartridges for hunting weapons. A brief inscription gives the main parameters: the destination (hunting), the caliber size, the type of gunpowder, the fraction number, the length of the cartridge case.

Caliber of cartridges

There are two definitions of the caliber:

  • Diameter of the bullet;
  • The diameter of the barrel of the gun barrel.

The calibers of hunting cartridges are numerically the same as the channel of the gun barrel. Moreover, the calibers of smoothbore and rifled arms differ somewhat in their marking.

Smoothbore rifles are calibrated with an even integer number: 4, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36. The most demanded in the world are calibers 12, 16, 20, 28, 32 and 36. Accordingly, Him - hunting cartridges 16 caliber. Such gradation helps to easily pick up shells to arms.

The caliber of rifled weapons is determined up to hundredths of a millimeter. In English-speaking countries, count inches. For example, 7.62 mm or 5.6 mm. Similarly, calibrated shells - hunting cartridges 7.62. The diameter of the rifle bullet must necessarily match the diameter of the barrel. Then the bullet acquires a rotational motion.

With the standard size it's hard to make a mistake, but with the selection of bullets you have to be careful. English-language marking requires certain knowledge. The choice depends on the purpose of the charge, it should have the best accuracy at the maximum range or the maximum stopping effect, which game will be mined by the hunter - small or large. The marking will suggest the best option.

Cartridges for sports

Hunting and sports-hunting cartridges differ from combat ammunition in the absence of solid steel cores in bullets. The main task of such weapons is to hit one single target, which does not have a protective bulletproof vest. A fighting bullet, through which the big game is stitched, capable of ricochetting from stones or trees, is too dangerous and unpredictable for use in hunting.

It is almost impossible to find more specific parameters by which it is possible to clearly distinguish between combat and hunting or sports-hunting ammunition. A huge number of weapons, different in purpose, but similar in their characteristics, leads to the fact that in hunting rifles can also use live ammunition.

Sports and hunting guns are almost identical. The difference is that sports are highly specialized: they have more weight, there is a comfortable grip and a special box, cartridges for shooting 12 caliber. In hunting rifles the scope of application is somewhat wider.

Charging cartridges

A huge range of ammunition can meet almost any needs of hunters and athletes. This choice is provided by the hunting shop. Cartridges are offered both with bullets, and with shotchy or with shot. A significant drawback of such products is the reduced mass of the powder and the increased weight of the shot.

At home, ammunition is charged for two main reasons:

  • First, it is much cheaper than buying finished products;
  • Secondly, manual manufacture helps to achieve a much better fight of the gun.

Many hunters, especially those with long experience, prefer to make ammunition on their own. On sale there are all the necessary components to make a hunting cartridge:

  • Capsules. There are two types: closed for smokeless gunpowder and open for smoky powder. Shelf life - from 3 to 6 years, but if the container for storage was airtight, then the capsules retain their qualities for 10 years.
  • Powder. For the dosage scale is used, the allowable deviation is not more than 0.05 grams. Depending on the cartridge and the type of shotgun, the type of gunpowder is chosen. The mistake of many newcomers is that they believe that the more powder is poured into the cartridge, the more effective the shooting will be. Possible consequences of the "search" gunpowder - a rupture of the barrel, a strong return, a reduction in accuracy. On cans with gunpowder for 12 caliber the maximum hinge is indicated.
  • Get some. According to the rules, the height of the wad can not be more than two thirds of the diameter of the trunk. The material from which the wad is made can be different: felt, plastic, paper, cardboard, leather, hemp. It is a cylindrical cork, the purpose of which is to separate the powder from the bullet, shot or grains.
  • Fraction, bullets, buckshot. Any of the charges can be inserted into the hunting cartridges. 12 caliber involves the use of a corresponding bullet and two wigs - basic and additional. They are installed in such a way that there is a gap of 5 millimeters for rolling. In hunting cartridges of 12 calibers, a canister 8 mm in diameter is used. Equipment cartridges occur as follows: the wad or cardboard padding is poured to the edges of the sawdust, then stacked buckshot (four pieces) and tightly rammed. Then repeat the process, only for the third time use only three grapes, close with a gasket and tighten the cartridge. To increase the accuracy of shooting, lay only nine kartachin. Cartridges with a 12-gauge shot are made considering the weight of the gun itself. The measurement of the fine fraction is carried out with the aid of a dispenser for gunpowder, the larger one by measure or simply by counting. After filling the charge, you must leave a margin of at least 4 millimeters high so that you can twist it. The crimping with an asterisk requires at least 11 millimeters, and a gasket is not required.
  • Gaskets. They are made of solid non-rigid cardboard. The optimum thickness is 2.4 millimeters. Purchased gaskets are put in two pieces.
  • Cases. Carefully chosen the length of the sleeve: too short - worsen the fight, excessively long - can trigger a critical increase in pressure. Shooting sleeves can be reused, except for paper cases. Plastic stand up to ten shots, metal - the most durable. They need periodic cleaning from oxide and carbon deposits. Dents, cracks, rust and burn-throughs are signs of inappropriate cartridges.

Charging hunting cartridges is not easy and in some ways insecure. The presence of flammable powder requires careful and careful handling. Open fire is unacceptable.

Equipment will require:

  • Dispenser for gunpowder;
  • Scales and a set of weights;
  • Special measures for gunpowder and shot;
  • Stand for cartridges;
  • UTS - universal device Sidorenko, for pressing capsules;
  • A warhorse, is used to send a wolf.

Ready cartridges are calibrated and stored in a dry place.

Homemade ammunition has no guaranteed shelf life. It all depends on the source material. When assembling old powder and a new capsule can be used, such nuances must be taken into account. If at least one part of the cartridge is expired, it can not be used, it's just dangerous.

Smoothbore cartridges

Any hunting cartridge can be attributed to one of three main groups:

  • For smoothbore weapons, the trunk has a smooth channel. Cartridges for this type of weapon can be bullet, shot and shot.
  • For rifled weapons, the trunk has a screw-like thread. From it you can shoot bullet and shot cartridges.
  • For "paradoxes", in this kind of weapon, the smooth trunk in the muzzle part has a thread. This design allows the use of all types of cartridges: bullet, shot and card.

Hunting cartridges smooth-bore consist of a cylindrical sleeve equipped with a primer-igniter, a projectile (this can be a shot, a shot, a bullet), a powder charge, a wad, a gasket.

Charge without shell, made of lead. The effectiveness of firing shot and shotchy within 60 meters. Individual types of bullets for smooth-bore weapons can stabilize in flight.

Depending on the type of cartridge, it can be used for sports competitions or a certain type of amateur or professional hunting.

Ammunition for smooth-bore weapons is conditionally divided into:

  • Small-caliber - the 28th, 32nd, 36th;
  • Medium-caliber - 16th, 20th, 24th;
  • Large-caliber - the 4 th, 8 th, 10 th, 12 th.

To date, both weapons and cartridges of caliber 4 and 8 are no longer produced. The 10th caliber is rare and is common only in the USA. The remaining calibers have varying degrees of popularity and demand among hunters and athletes.

Cutting cartridges

Rifled hunting cartridges are used for hunting game with a carbine or rifle. The bullet is equipped with a soft lead core and a hard shell. According to the law, in hunting cartridges it is forbidden to use armor-piercing and steel cores, explosive and tracer bullets.

Modern industry is able to satisfy almost all requirements of hunters for shooting game of any size at different distances. You can pick up rifled hunting cartridges with different penetrating ability and ballistic characteristics.

In shops selling hunting equipment, a competent employee will always be able to advise the buyer on the optimal ammunition for the available weapons. Do not give up the help of a specialist, the variety of cartridges is so great that it is not so easy to understand it. The right choice of cartridges guarantees success on the hunt. Mistakenly selected calibres of hunting cartridges can lead not only to damage to weapons, but also to injure the shooter himself.

The popularity of individual brands of cartridges of 12 caliber

The rating of cartridges consists of the responses of consumers - hunters. They are the main critics of this product. The most common brands of ammunition 12 caliber:

  • "Glavpatron" - are manufactured in Tula. Ammunition is reliable, stable, of good quality, the price is affordable.
  • "Rus" - made in Togliatti, from Russian components, are available at a price. Apply a sleeve in 70 mm and a sample of a fraction of 32-34 grams.
  • "Taiga" - are produced in Tula. Equipped with bullets and shot.
  • ZAO Techkrim - production in Izhevsk. A very wide selection of high quality cartridges.
  • "Magnum", mainly used when shooting at a distance of up to 50 m. For cartridges, a fraction of medium and large gauges with a weight of 40-44 grams is used. The return from the shot is minimal, the hit rate is high.
  • "SCM Industry" produces one of the most popular hunting cartridges of 12 caliber. Apply materials of foreign manufacturers. Recommended fractional numbers:

- № 5, № 6, № 7 up to 40 meters - for black grouse, woodcock, duck;

- № 2, № 3, № 4 to 45 meters - on the goose, hare;

- No. 000-1 to 50 meters - for a fox, a hare, a raccoon, a goose.

  • "Tahoe" produces a variety of cartridges. Fraction number 9-4, bullets, canister, for guns with a chamber of 70 mm. For athletes in cartridges, use fraction 5, 7, 9.
  • "Vetter" is one of the most popular brands. They are distinguished by high quality and reasonable price. For a variety of types of hunting, for any game. Cartridges have a special marking, for example "Glukhar", "Duck" and others.
  • "Clover" is made from high quality raw materials, the packaging has a simple and understandable marking. The peculiarity of this brand is that the sleeves for all kinds of cartridges are made of plastic, the length is 65-89 mm. The fraction is mainly lead, the individual samples are made of steel. Suitable for traditional weapons with a chamber of 70 mm.

The ability to understand the types of weapons and ammunition to them has a practical side - it will help make the right choice and get a real pleasure from hunting.

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