How writing developed in the Slavic lands. ABC of Cyril and Methodius

The beginning of literacy in Russia is considered to be the appearance of a letter after the arrival of Christianity on these lands. The ABC of Cyril and Methodius is what allowed our country to read the lives of saints and the Bible in their native language. Until then writing did not exist. At least, this is the official position of historians, and there is no evidence of the existence of the Proto-Slavic records for today.

True enlighteners of Rus are the monks Cyril and Methodius. The Slavic alphabet, created by them, has become widespread. However, even here everything is not so simple, because there are not one, but two whole systems of writing: Cyrillic and Glagolitic. Disputes about which of them was the first, are still being conducted. Cyrillic, which we still use in our lives, may have been created by an older brother. However, historians and philologists in their majority believe that the Christian saint developed the Glagolitic, radically different from the Cyrillic alphabet. This alphabet can not be read by any of the modern Slavs, only narrow specialists.

About the brothers tell the lives of the saints, as well as "The Tale of Bygone Years." Who were these two who changed our world? They were born on the shore of the Aegean Sea, in the Macedonian city of Thessaloniki. Their father, a Greek by nationality, held an honorary post, so all his seven sons received a good education. A mother could be a Slav, as the brothers spoke from childhood in the local Slavic dialect. Extraordinary abilities of Constantine (Cyril in monasticism) noticed very early, so he was predicted a brilliant career. The death of the patron prompted the boy to become a novice at the monastery, and then take part in missionary work. Perhaps the alphabet of Cyril and Methodius was conceived during the baptism of Bulgaria, in which Cyril took part. However, the work of the monk took about 862 in Moravia, where he went on the instructions of the emperor. The fact is that the local prince Rostislav asked to send the learned men who will teach the people to read.

The alphabet of Cyril and Methodius first had opponents, as many people believed that the praise of the Lord God can only be offered in the languages in which the inscription was made on the Cross of the Lord, that is, in Latin, Greek and Hebrew. But the brothers had the support of the Pope, so they continued to spread the Slavic script. The death of Cyril did not finish the case, because Methodius diligently fulfilled his brother's will. And although the persecution continued, the brothers had followers who were active in Bulgaria and Croatia.

What is the ABC of Cyril and Methodius? After all, in the Western countries, the Latin alphabet is used, and the Glagolitic was in use for some time before it completely disappears. Some researchers agree that it was the brainchild of monastic brothers, and the Cyrillic alphabet was already created by their students. There is a hypothesis that the enlighteners of Russia adapted the Slavic runic signs, "features and cuts" used here, to their alphabet, but there is no confirmation of this.

Creation of the alphabet by Cyril and Methodius is an epoch-making event, since it increased the level of literacy in Russia, spread Christianity, and also made it possible to read the works of European thinkers in their native language for many peoples.

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