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How are elections in Germany?

Germany is a democratic European state with a complex political system. Decisions in the country can be made at the federal and local levels, each of which has its own executive, judicial and legislative bodies. How are the elections in Germany? We will find out about this further.

Federal Republic of Germany

The country is in Western Europe. It is washed by the North and Baltic Seas, and is surrounded by Denmark, the Czech Republic, Poland, Austria, Switzerland, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands and France. Germany is a developed country with a strong economy and a high standard of living.

It belongs to a number of world organizations, such as the European Union, NATO, the G8. The country is home to 82 million people. The official language is German. The largest cities are Berlin, Hamburg, Cologne, Munich, Bremen, Dusseldorf.

The capital of the state is Berlin, however many federal departments and ministries are located in Bonn. Germany is a democratic, legal, social state, whose form of government is defined as a parliamentary republic.

The system of elections in Germany for the parliament, cabinet, chancellor and president is different. The only body that is elected by direct popular vote is the parliament. Other bodies and positions are elected by authorized persons.

Germany: presidential elections

The president is the head of state. For the first time the post arose in 1949. In February 2017, Frank-Walter Steinmeier was elected. Its official residences are in Berlin and Bonn. Presidential elections in Germany are held every five years with the possibility of one re-election. One person can only hold this post twice.

The functions of the chapter include representation of the country in the world arena, the announcement and signing of laws, the approval of federal employees, officers and judges, and the nomination of a candidate for the post of Chancellor.

To hold elections in Germany, a special body is being formed - the Federal Assembly. It consists of an equal number of members of parliament and delegates from regional parliaments. The candidate who obtained the majority of votes is elected to the post of president. The decision comes into force after taking the oath.

Elections of the Chancellor

The central government is represented by the government. Its head is the Federal Chancellor. On his shoulders are entrusted the main duties of state administration, because of what the form of government of the country is often called the Chancellor's democracy. He decides on the way in which Germany should move.

The election of the Chancellor is carried out by the Bundestag (Federal Parliament). His powers last 4 years. They can be terminated ahead of time after a constructive vote of no confidence, that is, when most members of parliament recognize disagreement with the policy of the Chancellor.

The head of government can form the Cabinet of Ministers, determine the number of its seats and the scope of the ministers. Proposals on their dismissal or appointment, he first gives the president. Since 2005, Angela Merkel has been chancellor.


The supreme unicameral legislative body is the Bundestag or the federal parliament. Parliamentary elections in Germany are held every four years. He controls the activities of the government, makes and passes laws, chooses the chancellor. Parliamentary bodies include the Presidium (the chairman and his deputies), the Council of Elders, committees, factions, the administration and the police of the Bundestag.

Elections in Germany are held in a mixed system. Half of the deputies are elected by direct secret ballot, the other part passes through lists from each land. Both these stages are connected with each other. The first vote gives an adjustment to the composition of the factions, the second - determines the party structure of power.

Representatives of the parliament can be represented by parties that have won from 5 percent or more of votes or won in three single-mandate constituencies. The total number of seats is 631. The seats for each past game are calculated according to the method of Saint-Lagu, in accordance with the number of votes they received in the elections.


The federal status of the country says that important decisions are made at two levels: national (federal) and regional. The territory of Germany is divided into 16 lands. At the same time, Hamburg, Berlin and Bremen are city-lands. Each of them has its own parliament, executive and judicial power.

The interests of the regions in the central parliament are represented by the Bundesrat. Sometimes it is called the upper house, although it is formally considered that there is only one chamber in the parliament. The Bundesrat is a legislative body that has the right to propose and challenge most of the laws.

This is not an elected body, without a term of office. At present, it is represented by 69 people. From the government of each land in it is sent from 3 to 6 people, depending on its size. The only elective position in the Bundesrat is the post of its chairman. Members of this body elect him for a year.

Landtag and local elections

The parliament of each separate land is called the Landtag. It represents the main legislative body at the regional level. All decisions are taken at a closed plenum, which is held with the participation of factions and deputies.

The lands are divided into cities, rural communities and communes, in which self-government bodies are located. Local elections in Germany are conducted by analogy with nationwide elections. Voters vote for the composition of the district, rural and city council, also called "local parliaments."

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