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House of Commons of Great Britain: order of formation, composition

The Parliament of Great Britain is one of the oldest estate-representative bodies in the world. It was founded in 1265 and with minor changes exists to this day. The English parliament consists of two chambers: communities and lords. The first, though called the bottom, still plays a much larger, if not decisive, role in the British parliament.

"Foremother" of representative bodies of the world

The Parliament of Great Britain is exactly what they call it. It has been operating for almost 800 years! Just think about it! In world history, not many states can boast of such a duration of existence. During this time, the country's parliament remained without much change and as in 1265, today it consists of the lower and upper chambers, as well as the monarch. The history of the country is inextricably linked with this state body, because as it (the organ) it has also perfected. Laws and regulations, important changes are all activities of the parliament. It can influence public opinion, as well as the actions of the government. For several centuries, the English Parliament has been the center of the political life of the United Kingdom.

So is it lower or not?

If we follow the process of political changes and the degree of influence of the chambers, it will not be difficult to come to a conclusion about the supremacy of the lower house. It is to this chamber that elections are held, applicants come to it only through the electoral system and for a long time there they do a tremendous job. Parliamentarians of the House of Commons are the main lawmakers of the state. They should always be on the pulse of domestic and foreign policy developments for the earliest possible response to various economic, political and social messages. As a result, the superiority of this part of parliament can be traced even with a superficial acquaintance with the functions of the estate-representative body.

The formation of the House of Commons and the suffrage

The House of Commons of Great Britain, having a principle of election, pursues one goal. As you know, the kingdom is a two-party system. And the entire political struggle for power takes place between the two parties. As a result of elections, their representatives come to parliament. And then everything is simple: for whose party the majority will be, she will rule the ball. This system has already become traditional for Great Britain with its Vigi and Tory parties, which today are called liberals and conservatives, respectively.

All citizens who have reached the age of 18 living in the district, as well as those registered in the electoral lists, take part in the elections. These lists are drawn up annually on or before 10 October. And on November 29, they are hung up for public inspection in order to check them by the citizens themselves and possible adjustments.

I must say that there is a system of elections by mail, as well as by proxy in cases of illness or absence in the district at the time of elections.

As in other countries, mentally ill citizens, foreigners serving sentences for grave and especially grave crimes, those convicted of dishonesty in elections under the age of 18, and peers, with the exception of the Irish, do not take part in the elections.

Who can be elected to parliament?

The House of Commons is formed by citizens who comply with the norms of passive electoral law. This right is vested in all citizens who have reached the age of 21, except for:

- mentally ill;

- paid judges and magistrates;

- peers and passion, except for the Irish, since they do not have the right to be members of the House of Lords of the English Parliament;

- civil servants (who wants to take part in elections, the civil servant must first resign from his place of work, and then nominate his candidature);

- military personnel (who wants to participate in elections, the officer must first resign, after which he can nominate himself);

- heads of public corporations (for example, BBC);

- representatives of the clergy.

If a person does not meet the above requirements, he can not participate in elections. In cases where, before the elections, this was not found, the candidature may be withdrawn during the elections and even after them. Then the vacated seat is declared vacant, and the elections are held again. The elected member of the House of Commons is vested with all the powers provided for.

The term of empowerment

The newly elected parliamentarians are given rights for a period of 5 years. However, it is necessary to take into account the moments of dissolution and self-dissolution. Concerning the first, it can be proposed by the Prime Minister of Great Britain, and the monarch, in turn, does not even have, in fact, "written" circumstances to reject his proposal. The prime minister can be guided by various facts, most often this is due to precedents inside the parliament. For example, after the end of World War II, the first parliament, which worked for the entire term, was elected in 1992.

In some cases (which is extremely rare), the UK Parliament may announce the dissolution or the renewal of its powers. Concerning the first, the last time it happened more than 100 years ago - in 1911. And if we talk about the extension of powers, they took place during the First and Second World Wars.

Composition and regional formation

The House of Commons is formed of 659 members. This figure was not always the same, it varies depending on the growth in the number of people in the counties and cities of the country. For example, over the past 70 years, the number of the lower house has increased by 10%.

If we look at the composition in the regional context, then the lion's share is made up of members from England - 539 members, Scotland is represented by 61 seats, Wales - 41 and Northern Ireland - 18 seats.

Party composition is formed depending on the work done, as well as the oratorical skills of the nominees from the districts and cities. Needless to say, the fight is fierce enough, no one wants to retreat, and most often the voices are slightly different.

Speaker of the lower house

The House of Commons is not just a bunch of deputies, united by a single goal. This body has a clear hierarchy and individuals performing certain duties. There are few such positions, they include a speaker with three of his deputies, the leader of the chamber, as well as the bailiff.

The Speaker is one of the Chamber's deputies and is elected by his colleagues with the personal approval of the monarch. Usually he is elected the most authoritative member of the ruling party, although there are exceptions. His election takes place once, but he remains in his post until he loses the election or withdraws voluntarily. The speaker has the functions of establishing the order of the deputies' speeches. It is he who owns the sole right to conclude the debate. As a result, the importance and the place of the speaker for the parliament of the lower house of the UK is invaluably high. In the exercise of his powers, the speaker dresses in a mantle and a white wig. Interestingly, after the end of his term, he is given the title of Baron, which makes him a member of the upper house.

Deputy speakers, leader, clerk and bailiff

The speaker has three deputies. The first is also the chairman of ways and means. His duty is to replace the speaker when he is absent. In cases of his or her absence, the powers are transferred to two other deputies. Three deputies are elected from among the deputies on the proposal of the leader of the chamber.

The leader is no less important officer of the House. This position is not elected. The leader is appointed by the Prime Minister of Great Britain, as a rule, the choice falls on the most influential and authoritative figure of the House.

Functions of the secretary are assigned to the clerk, who is assisted by 2 assistants. The main function of the clerk is the advice given to the speaker, the opposition, the government. As a result, along with the speaker and the leader of the Chamber, he is one of the most important persons. Security in the lower house is a matter of national importance, for which the bailiff is responsible.

Place for meetings

Historically, the meetings of both chambers take place at the Palace of Westminster. The green room is assigned to the lower house, it is small in size and looks rather modest. On two opposite sides of the room are benches. In the middle between them there is a passage. At the end of the room is a place for the speaker's chair, in front of which there is a massive table - a place for the mace. Next to the speaker at the table are clerks and give him advice. Deputies occupy places on the benches for a reason: at the right hand of the speaker are sitting deputies from the ruling party, on the left - the opposition.

Before the front rows of benches, red lines run from each side - these are the boundaries. They are located at a distance of two swords from each other. During the debate, deputies are forbidden to cross these lines. At the intersection, it is considered that the speaker wants to attack his opponent. The front seats are secretly assigned to government ministers and opposition leaders.

In crowded but not mad…

A distinctive feature, which is allocated to the lower house, is the insufficiency of places. There are only 427 benches on their benches. Although it was said above that there are 659 deputies in the chamber. Thus more than 200 people are forced to be at the entrance. From Monday to Thursday, the working week lasts, sometimes meetings are held on Fridays. In cases related to the threat to national security, the deputies rest only one day - on Sunday.

Most recently, meetings were allowed to be held in another room in the palace - Westminster Hall. However, serious issues are not understood in it.


For final editing and adoption by the Chamber of laws or bills, various committees are created:

  • Constant. They are created at the beginning of the convocation of the next parliament and act throughout the entire period of its authority. Its name does not at all mean the invariability of its composition. Committees, like the House of Commons, use elections every time to create and consider new bills.
  • Special. In the English parliament there are 14 special committees. Their main duty is to monitor the activities of ministries. This system was established in 1979 and is regarded as the most important reform of the century, which allows to improve the work of the government qualitatively.
  • Session. Some of the committees are set up for a year, that is, for a session of the parliament's work, which is why they got their name. These are mainly production committees, and they operate strictly within the scope of the activity of the House of Commons itself.

In addition to the three main types of committees, in some cases joint ones are established. They consist of representatives of both houses of parliament, as they affect the interests of both communities and lords.

Thus, the political system of the United Kingdom, developing throughout many centuries of its history, has come a long way. The most significant moment in its formation is the creation and evolution of the estate-representative body - the parliament. As a result of the well-organized system of its chambers, Great Britain today is one of the leading countries in the world economy and politics. At the same time, the House of Commons plays a dominant role in political transformations and social and economic changes within the state.

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