History of furniture. From the Middle Ages to the present day

The history of furniture is a very interesting and extensive topic, it is almost impossible to fully cover it. Furniture in the modern sense has gone from a simple stone at the fire of an ancient cave to complex technological designs that abound in the interior of the "smart house". We decided to designate for you the milestones in the history of furniture.

It is difficult to say which era of human development we owe to the invention of furniture, it is believed that the ancestors of modern furniture were ordinary stones that cave people moved closer to the fire. The Egyptians began to make furniture directly. They performed furniture from solid wood or ivory, giving it a symbolic meaning and making furniture an embodiment of artistic thought. The Romans began decorating the furniture with expensive decorations, thereby becoming the ideological inspirers of many stylistic trends.

However, with the advent of Christianity, the era of luxury came to an end. The Grand Inquisition and the bubonic plague were a great test not only for people, but also for the art world. Expensive furniture, like all other household items, was criticized by the church and was fairly simplified. Some were addicted to asceticism to the point that it is difficult to believe. For example, tables and chairs, even in well-founded homes, could not have legs, and the countertops were covered with a sheet of tin.

And only in the tenth century in France appeared messengers of a new era - objects made in light ornate style, decorated with bas-reliefs and carvings. Medieval furniture of those times is elegant and simple. At the same time, a well-known closet was invented. Before that, the clothes were stored in chests and chests. It was the cabinet that served as the founder of the whole "furniture family": its modified derivatives - a buffet, various bookcases, and a cabinet-bureau. Further prosperity of carpentry and mastery of cabinetmakers is closely related to technological progress, the growth of cities, the emergence of competition, domestic and national characteristics of the population of Europe. The history of furniture took a new turn.

France, the birthplace of court etiquette, gave the world light and elegant furniture. In Germany, they tried to emphasize the welfare of the owner, so they did not save on the materials. From a natural massif of a tree the sound furniture which was decorated with a sculptural carving was made. In Scandinavian countries, more attention was paid to the functionality of interior items, limited to the simplicity of the lines.

But not only geography played the role of a "designer" of furniture. Imposed their imprint and fashion trends, formed under the influence of various historical styles. "Baroque" gave descendants a comfortable, and now rather chalet, a chaise longue, as well as a small sofa "canapé". The mirror track in the form of a dressing-table and a treelike left the Rococo style. And the "modern" stripped the chair of the armrests and bent his back in the form of a shell. Any furniture, until the end of the XIX century, was deprived of the facelessness of mass production and was a kind of work of art. Today her best examples can be seen, in particular, in the Palace of Alexander Menshikov in St. Petersburg.

The first mass production of furniture began the company "Brothers Tone", opened its factory in Moravia. Its founders instructed the machines to perform the processes of punching wood and bending wood. This simplified the technology and lowered the final cost of interior items. Furniture became available to prosperous peasants, which caused a wave of mass demand. Quality surrendered under the onslaught of the required quantity, and the beauty of the previous eras was mashed by the style of functionalism. It was he who became the fashion trendsetter for many years, providing numerous establishments and offices with flow tables, chairs, office cabinets.

Functionalism has removed from our apartments exclusive furniture. Modern furniture - a sofa-sofa, sideboard, cabinet furniture "wall" and other joys of minimalism. Furniture made of natural wood became a luxury, accessible only to the ruling leadership. And the invention of plastics expelled natural materials from the decorating sector. Thread and inlay are replaced by cast decorations from this synthetic material. And public rooms are completely furnished with plastic tables and chairs. And only the twenty-first century decided to put everything in its place, returning the person and his home to the bosom of Mother Nature. Fashion for furniture from solid wood is more important than ever.

According to individual orders, cabinetmakers and other specialists will make everything: from furniture for computer and audio-video equipment to an exclusive sofa-transformer with a folding table and a massager. His customer can limit his fantasies only by sense of measure and solvency. Furniture production is once again becoming an art that, over time, only acquires historical and artistic value.

Perfect your life at home and at work, and you will not only feel the luxury of interiors made from natural materials, but also leave a good memory for your descendants.

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