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Historical stages of human development

At present, the historical path traveled by mankind is divided into the following segments: the primitive epoch, the history of the Ancient World, the Middle Ages, the New, the Newest Time. It should be noted that for today, among scientists who study the stages of human development, there is no common opinion on periodization. Therefore, there are several special periodizations, which partially reflect the nature of the disciplines, and the general, ie. Historical.

Of the special periodizations, archaeological significance is of the greatest importance for science, which is based on differences in instruments of labor.

The stages of human development of the primitive epoch are determined more than 1.5 million years ago. The basis for its study was the remains of ancient guns, rock carvings and burials, which were revealed during archaeological excavations. Anthropology is a science that deals with the restoration of the appearance of a primitive man. In this time period, the emergence of a person, it ends with the emergence of statehood.

During this period, the following stages of human development are distinguished: anthropogenesis (evolution, which ended about 40 thousand years ago and led to the emergence of a human species of intelligence) and sociogenesis (the formation of social life forms).

The history of the Ancient World begins its countdown in the period of the emergence of the first states. The periods of development of mankind, expressed in this era, are the most mysterious. Ancient civilizations have left monuments and architectural ensembles, examples of monumental art and painting, which have survived to this day. This era refers to the IV-III millennium BC. At this time, there was a split in society between the governed and the governors, the poor and the haves, slavery arose. The slave system reached its apogee in the period of antiquity, when there was an upsurge of civilizations of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome.

Russian and Western science refers to the beginning of the Middle Ages the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, which occurred at the end of the fifth century. However, in the encyclopedia "History of Humanity", issued by UNESCO, the beginning of this stage is considered the moment the emergence of Islam, which appeared already in the seventh century.

Stages of development of mankind in the Middle Ages are divided into three time intervals: early (5th century - middle 11th century), high (middle of the 11th century - the end of the 14th century), later (14-16th centuries). In some sources of civilization, the Ancient World and the Middle Ages are not delimited within the theoretical framework of "growth stages" and are viewed as a traditional society based on natural / semi-natural economy.

During the New Age, the formation of an industrial and capitalist civilization took place. The stages of the development of mankind at this stage are divided into several segments.

First. It originates when revolutions take place in the world aimed at overthrowing the class system. The first of these occurred in England in 1640 - 1660 years.

The second period came after the Great French Revolution (1789-1794). At this time there is a rapid growth of colonial empires, the division of labor at the international level.

The third period comes in the late 19th century and is characterized by the rapid development of industrial civilization, which occurs due to the development of new territories.

The newest history and its periodization is currently controversial. However, within its framework, the following stages of human development are distinguished. The table, available in school textbooks, shows that this era consists of two main periods. The first began in the late 19th century and affects the entire first half of the 20th century - the earliest New Age.

A great crisis, great rivalry, the destruction of the colonial systems of European states, the conditions of the Cold War. Qualitative changes occurred only in the second half of the 20th century, when the nature of labor activity changed with the development of industrial robots and the proliferation of computers. The changes also touched the international sphere, when the cooperation came to the place of rivalry.

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