Hernia. Types of Hernia

A hernia appears when the contents of one or another body cavity suddenly extend beyond the area where it should be. This content, usually representing parts of the intestinal tract or abdominal fat tissue, is covered with a thin membrane, whose main purpose is to lining the inner surface of the body cavity. Hernias can manifest as without any symptoms, and accompany with pain, from mild to unbearable.

In almost every case, a hernia is accompanied by a risk of infringement and, as a consequence, a violation of blood supply. When the contents of the hernia are pushed outward, the hole through which this occurred can begin to squeeze the blood vessels with a force sufficient to completely clamp them. When there is a violation of the blood supply of the hernia wall of the abdominal cavity, the problem begins to require as soon as possible medical treatment, which is due to the fact that the tissues of our body need oxygen, which is carried along with the blood. If there is no oxygen, then, eventually, the tissues may die out, which will cause necrosis and other complications that threaten the patient's life. That is why it is important not to hesitate and begin treatment of a hernia as soon as possible.

There are several different types of hernia walls of the abdominal cavity.

  • Inguinal hernia

    Inguinal hernia accounts for up to 75% of all cases of hernia walls of the abdominal cavity. This type of hernia occurs in men 25 times more often than in women.

  • Femoral hernia

    The femoral canal is the place where the femoral artery, the vein and the nerve are located, and through which they come out of the abdominal cavity into the thigh. As a rule, this channel is rather narrow. However, in a number of cases, it can expand sufficiently that the contents of the abdominal cavity (the intestine, as a rule) can begin to protrude into this channel.

  • Umbilical hernia

    This fairly common type of hernia, which accounts for 10 to 30% of all cases, is often noted in infants as a protrusion in the navel. This is due to the fact that in the anterior abdominal wall there may be a defect in which the umbilical ring, normally closed before birth, remains unopened. A small (less than a centimeter) umbilical hernia in children and newborns can disappear by itself by the age of two.

  • Postoperative hernia

    As one of the consequences of the transferred abdominal surgery, a defect in the abdominal cavity may develop. This defect will lead to the fact that the risk of developing a hernia in a certain area will increase substantially.

  • Lateral abdominal hernia

    This kind of hernia is rare. It exits through the cracks in the aponeurosis of the abdominal wall along the lateral edge of the rectus abdominis muscle.

  • Obstructive hernia

    Even more rare type of hernia, which occurs mainly in women. Such a hernia of the abdomen leaves through the occlusion channel under the horizontal branch of the pubic bone.

  • Epigastric hernia

    She's also a hernia of a white line. This hernia emerges through the gap in the white line of the abdomen; Usually located in the epigastric region or directly above the navel, less often - below the navel. Such a hernia, as a rule, consists of adipose tissue.

Some types of hernia walls of the abdominal cavity may be present in a person from birth, some develop later. Hernias can develop in the ways formed during periods of intrauterine development, in already existing holes in the abdominal cavity, in weak areas of the abdominal wall. The appearance of a hernia or deterioration of its severity can be associated with any condition in which the pressure on the abdominal cavity increases. In addition, there is a hereditary factor.

Signs and symptoms of hernias can range from a small painless tumor to an extremely painful, sensitive, swollen protrusion of tissue that can not be "pressed" back into the abdominal cavity (the so-called strangulated hernia).

As the hernia itself, and any of their symptoms are the reasons to immediately seek advice from a specialist. In some cases, to identify a hernia, one does not even need to perform any tests. The doctor will conduct an examination and prescribe a course of treatment for you.

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