Genital genital warts: causes and treatment

Genital condylomas are small outgrowths of an infectious nature on the skin in the genital area. They are a manifestation of the disease, which is transmitted predominantly through sexual intercourse. Outside the medical sphere, they are called genital or genital warts. What causes their appearance and how to get rid of the condylomas, we discuss in the article.


Genital genital warts are a manifestation of papillomavirus infection (PVI), in particular, the HPV-6 and HPV-11 virus. Infection occurs during sexual intercourse through injured skin or mucous membranes.

Most of the carriers of the virus do not suffer from clinical manifestations, but they easily become a viral reservoir for their healthy partner without even guessing about it. The disease is not characterized by sexual selectivity. Both men and women are at risk, but in female representatives, clinical manifestations are more visible.


In addition to the sexual way of transmission, PVI is characterized by a contact path and vertical (from mother to child during labor). Statistics show that 80% of women are infected after a few years after the onset of sexual activity.

Genital warts appear in about a few months. The manifest period can be delayed up to 9-12 months from the moment of infection. Some types of virus can cause the development of malignant neoplasms. However, not all variations are so aggressive. It all depends on the strain of the papillomavirus and the human immune system.

The clinical picture of infection

Genital warts (genital warts) are considered exophytic, that is, protruding above the surface of the skin or mucosa. Favorite places of localization:

  • Cervix;
  • The walls of the vagina;
  • vulva;
  • groin area;
  • crotch;
  • Prianal area.

Genital condylomas in women like to be located on small and large labia, clitoris, external hole of the urethra.

Visual characteristics and colposcopic examination allow us to diagnose three main types of sprouting, although they are united by one term "pointed":

  • Papillary;
  • Papular;
  • Actually pointed.

The formations of all three groups have different appearance, but the same structure and features of growth. The size can vary from a small speck to an extensive tumor with spiny growths. They have light or dark color (brown and even black).

Genital warts, photos of which can be seen on specialized sites and pages of educational literature, can not disturb the infected person at all. The other patients have discomfort, though, mostly because of aesthetic disability. Those who are ill complain of anxiety, guilt, complexes, a decrease in self-esteem, anxiety due to the fact that they may have problems with the birth of children or malignancy.

At sexual contact, the skin and mucous membranes are easily injured, which causes the appearance of pain syndrome, itching, burning, bleeding.

Do I need to abstain from sexual activity?

Until the genital warts are cured and completely disappear, experts recommend refraining from sexual acts (including oral and anal). Using a condom as a protection against infection will not work, since an important link is direct contact with the partner's skin, and this is a vast enough area.

Differential disease

Genital warts (genital warts) should be differentiated from molluscum contagiosum, broad papilloma, dermatitis, psoriasis, polyp, cancer, hypertrophic sebaceous glands.

With what differentiation is carried out Features
Molluscum contagiosum The wart has curdled contents and an entrainment in the center
Syphilitic wide warts They have a flat form, pink-red color, dense
Squamous cell papilloma Outgrowths of connective tissue that do not merge with each other. Cytology determines the presence of normal flat epithelium
Psoriasis Plaques protrude above the skin, covered with scaly scales
Dermatitis of an allergic nature The protrusions protrude slightly above the skin, merge, have a pink tinge. After using antihistamines disappear or decrease sharply
Fibroepithelial polyp Characterized by the lack of atypical location of blood vessels
Papular nerve of the genital organ in men The presence of individual papules located near the frenum or along the circumference of the penis, with a diameter of up to 2 mm each
Uterine Mucosa Eversion Manifestations are localized only near the external opening, the condition is normalized after using creams with estrogens
Oncological diseases Confirmed by cytological examination

Diagnostic measures

The doctor makes a visual assessment, determining the following characteristics of the condyloma:

  • Color;
  • quantity;
  • Localization;
  • Shape;
  • Dimensions;
  • Presence of confluence among themselves.

If genital warts are located in the urethra, vagina or anus, uretroscopy, colposcopy or anoscopy, respectively, is performed. In exceptional cases, a biopsy is used - in the presence of pathological pigmentation, atypical form, recurrent proliferation, the presence of ulcers, necrosis, complicated diagnosis.

To clarify the diagnosis, a sample with a 5% solution of acetic acid is carried out. To do this, apply a liquid to the medical napkin and apply to the area of the formations for 5 minutes. Confirmation will be in case the warts acquire a whitish shade.


Scientists have proved that the clinic of PVI is accompanied by changes in the general and local immunity, which involve the activation of the virus. This leads to an uncontrolled administration of immunopreparations. The use of the latter is unreasonable, their effectiveness is not confirmed by the data obtained during clinical trials.

Experts argue that more attention should be paid to provoking factors and to combat their appearance. These include:

  • STI;
  • Frequent change of partners;
  • Bad habits, especially smoking;
  • Menstrual cycle disorders.

Removal of condylomas

Treatment of genital warts depends on their morphological characteristics, size, location, quantity, age, pregnancy. Traditional methods of combating genital warts:

  1. Cryodestruction - the affected area is treated with liquid nitrogen. The procedure is repeated every few weeks until all the growths disappear. Can cause skin pigmentation disorder.
  2. Laser destruction - doctors use non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation, which allows selective action on the affected area, without touching the surrounding tissues.
  3. Electrocoagulation is a less gentle procedure, but it has the best result. The operated site quickly heals, but anesthesia is necessary.
  4. Argon-plasma ablation is the action of the energy of the electromagnetic field with the help of an argon plasma torch. It causes heating and coagulation of the tissue.
  5. Mechanical removal of genital warts with a scalpel and medical scissors using local anesthesia.

The choice of method of treatment is carried out jointly by the doctor and the patient.

Medication Therapy

The effectiveness of local drugs is based on their ability to cause necrosis and destruction of papillomas.

"Condilin" is a preparation with antimycotic and cytostatic action. The agent blocks the multiplication of cells at the metaphase stage. The application of genital warts on the area causes the development of necrosis and mummification of the latter.

In the kit there are special applicators, allowing to type a solution and apply it so that to protect surrounding tissues from contact. The tool does not process more than 50 outgrowths at a time. The course of treatment is twice a day for 3 days.

"Solkoderm" is a mixture of acids (acetic, nitric, oxalic, lactic) and copper nitrate in the form of a solution. It is applied to the infection area with the help of an applicator, staining it in yellow. The treatment is carried out by a medical professional. If necessary, repeat the procedure in a month.

In the therapy of medium and large papillomas, "Imiquimod" is used, a cream that allows the immune system to fight the pathogen. It is applied three times a week before going to bed, and in the morning it is washed off with warm water and soap. The result is noticeable after a few weeks of treatment.

Trichloroacetic acid is an effective and safe remedy for pregnancy. It disrupts protein synthesis in pathological growths, causing their death. The drug is a concentrate and can cause burning sensation in the application site, however it disappears quickly enough.

Gel and ointment "Viferon" have not only antiviral, but also immunostimulating effect. Assign in combination with other drugs to enhance the result of therapy. The agent is applied up to 5 times a day for a week.

The use of any of the drugs requires consultation with a specialist. Self-medication in this case is not allowed.

Preventive measures

Observance of the following rules will prevent the appearance of genital warts and infection of PVI:

  • Monogamous sexual relations;
  • Avoiding contacts with unfamiliar persons;
  • Strengthening the immune system;
  • The introduction of quadrivalent vaccine "Gardasil", which not only protects against papillomavirus, but also is the prevention of cervical cancer.

It should be remembered that it is impossible to completely cure the disease. Removal of genital warts and the use of medications can eliminate local manifestations, but the virus remains in the body. Preventing infection will not only keep the budget and the state of the nervous system, but also health in general.

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