Anyone who first visited the wonderful site of Christian Lingemark lyngsat.com, which is the source of information about satellite broadcasting, usually experiences some confusion when it comes to reading and using data. Most veterans of satellite reception appreciate its constantly relevant and reliable background information, which is extremely necessary for checking active transponders. But for beginners, people who have just started practicing FTA-reception, the table of frequencies "Lingsat" can seem scary. To appreciate the value of this reference tool and how much it contains useful data, you need to understand the meaning of the figures on the website.
Lyngsat: frequency tables, information about satellites
On the first page of the site there is a table with hyperlinks to satellites, packages and high-definition channels in the Asian, European, Atlantic regions and in America. Further, there are transitions to open television and radio channels in different parts of the world. For example, the frequency table "Satellite channels of Russia" appears when clicking on the link Russia on the Free TV / Europe page.
Then follows the list of the latest updates with the logo and the transition to the parameters of the channel and the transponder from which the broadcast is conducted.
At the bottom of the web page are links to:
- Packages of satellite TV providers;
- Table of frequencies "Lingsat" of open television channels;
- Internet TV;
- News about changes in satellite broadcasting;
- Data on the technical status of the lyngsat site and the status of daily and weekly mailings;
- Information on the order of updating the parameters of the existing channels;
- Frequencies, channels of popular satellites in Ultra HD format;
- Information on launches into the geostationary orbit ;
- Logos of channels LyngSat Logo;
- Standardized maps covering the television signal.
The frequency table of channels and keys from the main satellites is available via a hyperlink at the top of the page located in the Satellites line and column with a range of longitudes. For example, to obtain data for the Astra 4A at position 4.9 ° E, select the Europe cell in the column 73 ° E-0 ° E. In the appearing table with the list of satellites broadcasting to Europe, Africa and the Middle East, it is necessary to choose the required option. In addition, it contains information about the broadcasting range (L / S / Ka, C, C + Ku, Ku) or the movement of the satellite.
On the opened page there is a table of frequencies and keys for channels of satellite television with the following columns:
- Frequency and polarization, the number of the transponder and a hyperlink to the coverage map of its beam;
- Logo of the operator or channel;
- Their name;
- Links to packages, open channels, Internet broadcasting, teletext;
- The broadcasting standard and the coding system used;
- Parameters SR, FEC, SID, VPID;
- Parameters ONID, TID, C / N, APID and the language of the broadcast;
- Source and last modified date.
Frequency and polarity
The Lingsat frequency table and polarization information are parameters without which it will be impossible to tune in to the channel.
For example, the inscription 4180 H means that a C-band transponder is used at a frequency of 4180 MHz with horizontal polarization. 11749 V stands for the Ku-band transponder at a frequency of 11,749 MHz with vertical polarization.
Polarization of the signal means how it comes to the antenna. In satellite broadcasting two types of polarization are used, linear and circular. Linear signals are broadcast in a plane oriented either vertically or horizontally. A circularly polarized signal comes in the form of a "corkscrew", either right-hand (clockwise) or left-handed (counterclockwise). The receiving head or converter must correspond to the type of the received signal in terms of frequency and polarity.
If several streams are broadcast on one frequency, then MCPC takes place, which stands for "several channels per carrier". This is a "multiplex", which is also denoted by the acronym MUX or the word "bouquet". In the table, the name at the top of the block corresponds to the name of the multiplex service provider, and the data below is the actual channels contained in the bouquet. For example, SES Ukraine is a provider, and TET, "2 + 2", "1 + 1 International", Glas, Espreso TV, Rada, Era TV, Telekanal Ukraina - actual TV channels. The listed names are links where you can go to the appropriate site for more information about the services provided.
Type of signal
Fans of FTA reception in the first place will need a list of channels and frequencies for "Lingsat" in the standard DVB or Digital Video Broadcast. In addition to digital, the signal can be analog, for example, NTSC. This is the standard of the Committee of National Television Systems, adopted as a standard in the United States.
Until now, there are many analog satellite broadcasts, although the vast majority of channels are broadcast in digital coding. The string "1 + 1 International" is colored orange, since the broadcast is closed. Below the name of the encoding MPEG-4 is the name of the standard for encryption of the BISS signal. Nagravision, PowerVu, Conax, Viaccess, Videoguard are examples of other coding systems used throughout the world.
The lines TET, "2 + 2", Glas, Espreso TV, Rada and Era TV are yellow. This means that these channels are open and can be received by all FTA receivers. DCII or MPEG 1.5 FTA receivers are not supported.
The frequency table "Lingsat" uses such color codes for the channels:
- White - analog open;
- Pink - analog coded;
- Yellow - open digital standard resolution;
- Orange - closed digital SD-quality;
- Light green - an open digital high definition;
- Green - encoded digital HD-quality;
- Pink - Internet or interactive;
- Gray - technical for service broadcasting.
The abbreviation PID can be decoded as a "package identifier". All digital data from satellites is sent as data packets. Each of them has its own identification number. PID protects data from one channel from being interpreted as belonging to another. In addition, the package identifier determines the type of data - audio or video. Each video channel in the multiplexer has three PIDs - video, audio and PCR. The appointment of the first two explains their name. All digital data must be accurately synchronized, and the PCR PID is a data packet that contains the reference clock. It happens that it is contained inside the video PID, but it should not be so.
For example, Espreso TV has a video PID of 6,151, and Rada has 6,171 channels.
Continuing the discussion of packet identifiers, the Espreso TV APID is 6,152, and the Rada channel is 6,172.
Next to the PID is the inscription Uk. This means that the language is Ukrainian. This information is useful for determining the desired audio package when two or more APIDs are transmitted simultaneously on the same channel, accompanied in different languages. For example, the audio-PID 7692 Russian Club TV is labeled R, which means using Russian, and 7693 E means that the broadcast is in English.
For analog channels, these figures correspond to the audio frequencies used for manual stereo tuning of the left and right channels, respectively.
Transmission speed and FEC
On the Lingsat website, the frequency table contains one more mandatory parameter - the symbol rate (SR, symbol rate), which corresponds to the data transfer rate of the carrier. The higher the SR, the more information can be transmitted. For example, SR Viasat is equal to 27500, and for English Club TV the transmission speed is 30,000 symbols per second. In most cases, SR is an indicator of the number of channels transmitted by the carrier frequency.
FEC, direct error correction, is usually calculated by the receiver, so you do not need to enter this information, except for some, mainly older receivers. ¾ FEC from SES Ukraine means that out of every 4 bits 3 is reserved for data transmission and 1 for error correction.
The satellite is like a flashlight that shines on Earth. Its beam has a certain brightness or power, as well as a spread that covers a certain area. The assumption that it is possible to receive a signal from all satellites that are within line of sight is incorrect. To do this, the beam must cover a specific location. It can be sent to the whole hemisphere, a specific country or a small geographical area a few hundred kilometers in size.
On the Lingsat website, the frequency table under the transponder number contains a link, after which you can see a coverage map with the indicated signal power and data on the correspondence of the EIRP antenna size - the effective radiated power. For example, the orange section of the coverage map for the SES Ukraine transponder indicates that a satellite antenna with a size of no more than 50 cm is required to receive multiplex channels in Central Europe, Turkey, Scotland and Sardinia.
Source / Updated
This column contains the name of the source that updated this record. It also indicates the date of the last change.
White icons located in the column between the provider name and the coding system are links intended to provide additional information about a specific program or service.
- The "F" field is a link to a web page with a list of open channels.
- The "S" field will translate video or audio to the webcast page.
- If the provider of satellite television transmits the channel packages, the icon "P" will be sent to their detailed list.
- The "T" link will allow you to view the teletext.
- The "U" icon will provide data on a particular uplink station.
Service ID is a digital service channel used by the provider. This is also a very important parameter that you will need when setting up.
the freedom of action
This article does not pretend to be a complete guide to using the site, but is only a reference for those who want to learn how to create their own broadcast lists for FTA receivers so that they can use the site, understanding the meaning of the columns of numbers. At least, it will allow you to understand the settings of satellite receivers and program them at will, without being satisfied with the standard settings.