The thyroid gland is located on the neck, namely in front of the trachea. Consists of iron from two lobes - left and right, in the middle between them - an isthmus. Shchitovidka takes part in the synthesis of hormones such as thyroxine and triiodothyronine, the level of secretion of which is regulated by the thyroid-stimulating hormone of the pituitary gland. If this level of thyroid hormones rises or falls, then pathological changes begin that will affect one way or another all organs and systems of the body. Diseases of the thyroid gland, and today there are more than a dozen, is studying the science of thyroidology. The main diseases are: Graves' disease, myxedema, cancer, thyroiditis, thyroid gland adenoma, etc.
For more than a decade, the question of what are the etiological factors of the development of a thyroid gland disease, worries both scientists and patients around the world. However, at present, it has not been possible to unequivocally answer so far. It is known that the hereditary factor plays a very important role in the development of thyroid disease - under the influence of certain internal and external influences it is able to become more active. Iodine deficiency, stressful situations, infectious agents, solar insolation, etc., also play a significant role in disrupting the functioning of the thyroid gland.
Signs of Thyroid Disease
It is worth noting that the current, and the clinical picture, and the symptoms, and methods of diagnosis, and treatment of thyroid diseases are quite specific. We will understand, what are the signs of diseases.
1. With the acceleration of metabolic processes in the body and increased production of hormones, there is a rapid heartbeat, tremor, weakness, irritability, tearfulness, a sharp decrease in weight.
2. On the contrary, with the deficiency of thyroid hormones, the so-called hypothyroidism, metabolic processes slow down that provoke the appearance of such signs of thyroid disease as weakness, dry skin, rapid fatigue, swelling in different parts of the body, weight gain, bradycardia, hair loss, hypertension. Hypothyroidism can cause very unpleasant things, namely - the development of infertility in women or various vices (most often - from the side of the central nervous system) in the fetus in the womb of a sick mother.
3. As a rule, if there is a pathology of the thyroid, then there is a decrease or, conversely, an increase in its size, the appearance of tumors or nodes, a change in density. However, in some cases this may be a clinical picture of not exactly thyroid disease, but, for example, of such physiological processes as puberty, the state of pregnancy.
4. If the thyroid gland is significantly enlarged, nearby tissues and organs (vessels, esophagus, trachea, cervical nerves) are compressed, and the patient develops the so-called compression syndrome, that is, the sensation of the presence of an external body in the neck and the shortness of breath associated with it, hoarseness of the voice , Difficulty in swallowing.
5. In some cases, there are observed in the thyroid gland of pain, which are very unpleasant signs - a hemorrhage into the thyroid nodule or inflammatory processes in its tissue.
6. Autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland are widely spread: toxic diffuse goiter and autoimmune thyroiditis, in which leukocytes and special proteins - antibodies that together contribute to tissue damage to the thyroid gland or stimulation of its function - are formed in the patient's blood. The most common signs of autoimmune diseases of the thyroid are bradycardia, changes in the voice timbre, memory impairment, gradual weight gain, shortness of breath during physical exertion, coarse facial features, fuzzy speech, and menstrual irregularities and infertility in women.