Difficult breathing is a violation of the frequency and correct rhythm of inspiration and exhalation, which is accompanied by sensations of lack of air. Shortness of breath is a form of this kind of breathing, which is characterized by a piercing sound (whistling, noise) during inspiration. It can arise as a result of disruptions in the work of those links that are responsible for the implementation of this process: the cortex of the brain, the muscles of the chest, the cardiovascular system, the diaphragm and the respiratory center. In the absence of disturbances from the nervous regulation of respiration, dyspnea is compensatory in nature, in that it replenishes the lack of oxygen and removes an excessive amount of carbon dioxide.
Difficulty breathing has several main causes:
- Blocking the airway in the nasal or oral cavity and in the throat.
- If the heart is broken, and it can not pump enough blood. As a result, the brain, organs and muscles do not receive oxygen to the fullest, so a feeling of suffocation can arise.
- Diseases of the lungs cause heavy breathing and shortness of breath.
- Very often emotional overstrain leads to a similar state.
Dyspnoea is of several types, the classification of which is related to the causes of development and forms of manifestation:
- The central type. Dyspnea (difficulty breathing) of this type occurs as a result of a disruption in the operation of cortical regulation of respiratory activity or primary lesions of the respiratory center. When neuroses are observed, this form is characterized by frequent shallow breathing. In this situation, the ambulance's task is to reassure the patient, try to teach him how to hold his breath, and then help him tune in to breathe slowly and smoothly, to shift his attention to something else.
- Dyspnoea with thoracodiaphragmatic disorders is a shortness of breath caused by impaired mobility of the diaphragm or chest, as well as by large accumulations of fluid in the pleura. In this case, a noticeable decrease in the depth of breathing, but an increase in its frequency. Treatment consists in eliminating the cause that caused this condition: puncture of the pleura in conditions of hydrothorax, as well as the introduction of a gas outlet tube (when flatulence develops).
- Pulmonary dyspnea is usually associated with a decrease in the surface or a small extensibility of the lung tissue, malfunctions of bronchial patency or impaired diffusion of gases.
Very often, this kind of shortness of breath is associated with impaired patency caused by bronchospasm, their edema or blockage (due to sputum). The main signs of this condition are lengthening of inspiration, swelling of cervical veins with it (because the pressure in the chest cavity increases), as well as manifestations of emphysema of the lungs. As a treatment, bronchodilator drugs are prescribed. If there is a difficult withdrawal of sputum, it is recommended that expectorants are taken.
- Cardiac dyspnea is a labored breathing that develops due to insufficient left heart, which leads to a decrease in cardiac output, to the fact that blood in the lungs stagnates or causes both. Very often this kind of dyspnea is also manifested by swelling, cold extremities. It can occur at night in a dream, but more often this happens after a strong physical load. Treatment in this case is complex, which includes diuretics, medicines based on digitalis.
- Hematogenous dyspnea often occurs with renal or hepatic insufficiency, with acidosis.
- With a mixed type of treatment should be appointed only after a thorough explanation of all the reasons for the development of such a condition.