Cryogenic tank - the best way to transport and store LNG

Cryogenic tank - stationary or transportable vessel, intended for storage, transportation and delivery to the end consumer of liquefied technical gas (hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen).

Natural gas is liquefied in refrigeration plants and cryogenic cycles in gas liquefaction plants by cooling to a temperature of 161.5 degrees Celsius.

Storage of cryogenic liquid is provided by maintaining the temperature regime in a heat-insulating medium.

The delivery, storage and transportation of liquefied technical gas are produced using special cryogenic equipment.

The advantage of cryogenic reservation is the reduction in the volume of the substance. So, in a liquefied state, natural gas occupies a volume 600 times smaller than in a natural gaseous state.

Cryogenic tanks: structural features

The cryogenic LNG tank is a nested double structure - the so-called vessel in the vessel - with an insulating vacuum space between the vessels. There are the following types of thermal insulation in the vessel - screen-vacuum, high-vacuum and powder-vacuum.

The cryogenic tank maintains a wide range of working pressure. High-quality materials are used in the manufacture. The inner tank is made of stainless steel. The outer one is made of aluminum.

To ensure the supply and refilling of cryoproducts, the tank is completed with nozzles.

Also in the complex of cryogenic equipment is a shut-off valve with safety valve, heat exchanger, measuring instruments and monitoring systems, and piping.

Depending on the purpose, the cryogenic structure can be either stationary or transportable. The transported structures can be designed both in a wireframe solution and without it.

Types of cryogenic tanks

Cryogenic tanks are produced in three design solutions - vertical cylindrical, horizontal cylindrical and spherical. Cylindrical tanks are produced in a maximum volume of up to 250 cubic meters. Spherical cryogenic tanks can reach a volume of 1440 cubic meters. Cylindrical cryogenic tank is used for storage and consumption of liquefied natural gas, is highly factory-ready.

Spherical cryogenic tanks are also used for storing liquefied natural gas, but are very expensive and time consuming to operate. All spherical cryogenic tanks are assembled in situ from spherical elements - petals, dome and bottom, manufactured in the factory.

The advantage of spherical tanks in front of cylindrical tanks is in a potentially larger volume of stored gas and the smallest surface area that is susceptible to corrosion and contact with stored matter.

Cryogenic storage tank for liquid oxygen

The internal storage tank for liquid oxygen is made of cold-resistant steel grades. The outer vessel is made of carbon steel. If necessary, the design is completed with a pipeline, atmospheric evaporators and associated equipment.

As a rule, a cryogenic tank for storing liquid oxygen is performed in a horizontal solution to reduce man-made risks.

In these tanks, the most effective screen-vacuum insulation is used, which allows to minimize losses of cryogenic products during storage.

Cryogenic tank for liquid nitrogen

Tanks for storage of liquid nitrogen are made in the standard solution: the inner cylinder is made of stainless steel. The pressure supercharger is made of aluminum. Each design is equipped with safety valves and pressure gauges for pressure monitoring.

The cryogenic reservoir can be equipped with control and measuring equipment and attachments for fixing on the foundation.

Cryogenic tanks: applications

Cryogenic tanks are used in the heat and power, oil and gas industries for receiving, storing and dispensing liquefied industrial gases - oxygen, hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, liquefied natural gas, argon, carbon dioxide.

The cryogenic reservoir is used in oil and gas production, mechanical engineering, medicine, aviation, heat and power industry.

Cryogenic fluids are highly toxic - they are subject to increased safety requirements.

Cryogenic tanks are the best solution for transportation of liquefied natural gas. Natural gas is converted to LNG by cooling at gas liquefaction plants in the gas production area. It is stored and transported in cryogenic tanks, which are equipped with special equipment - gas carriers and special vehicles.

Transportation of gas in a liquefied state compared to a pipeline is a more economical solution if the distance exceeds several thousand kilometers.

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