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"Crime and Punishment": problems. Moral issues in the novel by FM Dostoyevsky

Dostoevsky's novel "Crime and Punishment," whose problems we are interested in, is one of the most important examples of Russian literature, since it touched on global life issues and problems. The reader is exposed to a complex world of search, inner experiences, aspirations of heroes, who are waging a painful struggle with the surrounding injustice and with themselves. Describes their spiritual decline and the subsequent revival in the novel "Crime and Punishment". The problematic of this work makes us think a lot. The surprising depth of the disclosure of conflicts and human characters is striking in this novel. In it, FM Dostoyevsky described sublime ideas and aspirations. All this still excites many readers.

The main questions that arise in the work

Telling the story of a lost soul, later transformed, the writer does not just describe the difficult path that the hero went through, the path of mistakes, torments and remorse. FM Dostoevsky (his portrait is presented in the article) leads us through a contradictory and difficult way of finding answers to moral questions that are close to everyone, but at the same time so complex.

Why are people worthy - clever, noble, honest, kind - should perish in poverty, while being humiliated by stupid, cruel, mean, insignificant people who live in wealth and luxury? What did the poor children do? After all, they are forced to suffer and suffer from disease and hunger. What justifies the existence of such an order in the world and how can it be changed? What is the purpose of man? Why is there a division into "the right of having", which can transgress the moral foundations, and "the creatures of trembling", which it is forbidden? All these questions are raised by the author in the novel "Crime and Punishment". Its problems are largely revealed by the example of the life of Rodion Raskolnikov.

The Way of Rodion Raskolnikov

Rodion Raskolnikov, the hero of Dostoyevsky, who does not want to lead a miserable existence among the so-called "beasts of trembling" who can not change anything in the world, tries to attribute himself to the category of Napoleons, to whom everything is permitted, who despise existing laws and can establish their own. However, this path is not so simple. Disclosing the story of the crime committed by Raskolnikov and the subsequent punishment, Dostoevsky touches on some common features of spiritual and social life, moral and moral problems facing humanity.

The role of dreams in the work

Not only tragedy is struck by the events of the novel, but also by utmost truthfulness. Thanks to this, excitement and empathy in the hearts of readers cause the hero's torment, his contradictions and moral fluctuations. Speaking of them, Dostoevsky resorts to the use of various literary techniques that contribute to a deeper penetration into the hero's inner world, allowing to see the main thing from what is embedded in him. The motif of Rodion Raskolnikov's dreams plays a special role here. Let us recall, for example, the terrible dream that this hero saw on the eve of the murder. Rodion dreamed of a child who watches as a pounded horse is brutally beaten. The owner in dull malice is killing an animal to death. And in Raskolnikov's soul, as well as in the soul of each of us, there is a protest against this unjustified murder, resentment of cruelty, and also sympathy for another's pain.

Cruelty in real life

Thus , Raskolnikov in fact has a sensitive, kind soul. But the behavior of the owner of a horse is typical in the novel "Crime and Punishment". The problematic of this episode, of course, applies not only to bullying the animal. Indeed, the life of a lot of people who are forced to endure from the owners of the life of oppression is just as cruel, unfair and cruel. These cruel people humiliate, oppress them, they can even kill if they want to. And really kill - morally, if not physically. After all, what is the existence of unhappy people like Sone Marmeladova, Rodion's family, if not slow death? Raskolnikov, waking up, is appalled, above all, not by the scene of the murder of the horse, but by the plan he has conceived. The nature of Rodion rebels. However, this idea continues to live in his mind. And the desire to implement it is only strengthened by the heavy impression that the story of the Marmeladov family has on the hero.

Raskolnikov watches the death of the family, which has gone to an extreme degree of humiliation Sony, which is forced to trade the body in order to feed the brother and sisters. After that, vague ideas of Rodion that the interest-holder needs to be killed, turn into a detailed theory about the elected and submissively submitting.

Raskolnikov decides to carry out the planned

Raskolnikov attributes himself to the "elect" and wants to prove this to himself and others. Perhaps the inner struggle of this hero could end in another way. Perhaps he would not have dared to implement his cruel plan. However, just then he learns about another injustice - the distress of his mother, as well as the sister's willingness to become a victim - to marry an unloved one. Rodion scares the future of Dunya, which in many respects resembles the fate of Sonya. He can not allow this for his sister and therefore decides to carry out the plan.

The pernicious consequences of the atrocities

The problems of the novel "Crime and Punishment" become even deeper after the commission of Rodion crime. After all, after killing the old woman, Raskolnikov is forced to deprive Lizaveta of life, a creature that is innocent. Thus, one murder does not do - it entails another. In this thought is one of Dostoevsky's most important ideas. The author wanted to show that inhumanity and cruelty in a single case, regardless of what it was conditioned, gives rise to a new inhumanity. It carries in itself pernicious consequences not only for the perpetrator of the atrocity, but also for his surroundings. The whole world is changing, the main pillars are collapsing. The writer at the same time reveals to the hero, however, the path leading to salvation, although he lies through suffering.

Awakening of the hero's conscience

All his principles, feelings, thoughts make Raskolnikov overestimate the suffering he endured. And as a result of this comprehension, Rodion's conscience awakens. Dostoevsky here shows how the spiritual sphere of man is changing.

Turning itself off from the spiritual life means the crime of the laws of existence - such is the problematics of the novel "Crime and Punishment". With Rodion Raskolnikov this is exactly what happens. Having committed a crime, he becomes estranged from the world, from society, lonely in self-flagellation and suffering. He was broken as a man this crime.

The main idea of the work

Other images in the novel "Crime and Punishment" allow the author to deeperly reveal the problems of the work. Dostoevsky puts the main idea into the speech of the investigator Porphyry, who calls on Raskolnikov: "Become the sun - and you will be seen." In other words, only through human, high, good can one rise in the world. Sonia feels the same. Unfortunately, this girl had to make sure of her own sad experience.

Summing up the eternal questions and moral searches, the author leads the hero, and with him and all of us, to the realization of the need to live a real life, not invented, as an individual to be established only through kindness and love, through service to other people and the ideals of humanity and justice. This is the meaning of the novel "Crime and Punishment". The ideals of spiritual harmony and true humanity will never lose relevance. And today we are close to the problems raised by the author. In the novel "Crime and Punishment" there are very important thoughts that can warn the reader of the mistakes in life and direct it to the right path.

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