HomelinessTools and equipment

Control and measuring instruments and instruments: types and principle of operation

Any production involves the use of instrumentation. They are also necessary in everyday life: you will agree, it is difficult to do without repair during the repair without the simplest measuring instruments, such as ruler, roulette, caliper, etc. Let's talk about what measuring instruments and instruments exist, what their principal differences are and where Apply those or other species.

General information and terms

A measuring device is a device by which a value of a physical quantity is obtained in a specified range determined by the instrument scale. In addition, such a tool allows you to translate values, making them more understandable to the operator.

The control device is used to monitor the process. For example, it can be any sensor installed in a heating furnace, air conditioner, heating equipment and so on. Such a tool often determines the quality of products and properties. At present, a variety of measuring instruments and instruments are produced, among which there are both simple and complex ones. Some have found their application in one industry, others are used everywhere. In order to understand this issue in more detail, it is necessary to classify this tool.

Analog and digital

Instrumentation and instruments are divided into analog and digital. The second kind is more popular, because different quantities, for example, current or voltage, are translated into numbers and displayed. This is very convenient and the only way to achieve high accuracy of reading. However, it must be understood that an analog converter is included in any digital measuring instrument. The latter is a sensor that reads and sends data for conversion to a digital code.

Analog measuring and control tools are more simple and reliable, but at the same time less accurate. And they are mechanical and electronic. The latter differ in that they have in their composition amplifiers and converters of quantities. They are more preferable for a number of reasons.

Classification by different features

Measuring instruments and instruments are usually divided into groups, depending on the way information is provided. So, there are recording and showing tools. The first are characterized by the fact that they are able to record the readings in memory. Often used self-recording instruments, which independently print the data. The second group is designed exclusively for real-time monitoring, that is, during the reading of the indications, the operator should be near the device. Also, the instrument is classified according to the measurement method :

  • Direct action - one or several quantities are converted without comparison with the value of the same name;
  • Comparative - a measuring tool designed to compare the measured value with the already known.

What are the instruments in the form of presenting the readings (analog and digital), we have already figured out. Also classify measuring instruments and instruments by other parameters. For example, there are summing and integrating, stationary and shield, normalized and non-standard devices.

Measuring locksmith tools

With such devices we meet most often. Here the accuracy of the work is important, and since a mechanical tool is used (for the most part), it is possible to achieve an error of 0.1 to 0.005 mm. Any impermissible error leads to the fact that it will be necessary to refinish or completely replace the part or the whole assembly. That is why when fittering a shaft under a bushing, the locksmith does not use rulers, but more precise tools.

The most popular locksmith measuring equipment is calipers. But even such a relatively accurate instrument does not guarantee a 100% result. That is why experienced locksmiths always make a large number of measurements, after which an average value is selected . If you want to get a more accurate reading, then use a micrometer. It allows you to measure up to hundredths of a millimeter. However, many think that this tool is able to measure up to microns, which is not entirely true. And it is unlikely that when carrying out simple locksmith work at home, this accuracy will be required.

About goniometers and feelers

It is impossible not to tell about such a popular and effective tool, as a protractor. From the name you can understand that it is used if you want to accurately measure the angles of the parts. The device consists of a half-disk with a target scale. On it there is a ruler with a mobile sector on which the scale of the vernier is marked. To secure the mobile sector of the ruler, a locking screw is used on the half-disk. The measurement process itself is quite simple. To begin with, it is necessary to apply the measured part with one face to the ruler. In this case, the ruler is shifted so that a uniform lumen is formed between the faces of the part and the rulers. After that, the sector is secured with a locking screw. The first thing to do is take readings from the main ruler, and then from the vernier.

Often a dipstick is used to measure the gap. It is an elementary set of plates fixed at one point. Each plate has its own thickness, which we know. By setting a larger or smaller number of plates, the gap can be measured quite accurately. In principle, all these measuring instruments are manual, but they are quite effective and it is hardly possible to replace them. And now let's go further.

A bit of history

It should be noted, considering measuring instruments: their types are very diverse. We have already studied the basic devices, but now I would like to talk about a little more about other instruments. For example, an acetometer is used to measure the strength of acetic acid. This device is able to determine the amount of free acetic acids in solution, but was invented by Otto and used throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. The acetometer itself is similar to a thermometer and consists of a glass tube 30x15 cm. There is also a special scale, which allows you to determine the required parameter. Nevertheless, today there are more advanced and accurate methods for determining the chemical composition of the liquid.

Barometers and ammeters

But with these tools almost every one of us is familiar from school, technical school or university. For example, a barometer is used to measure atmospheric pressure. Today, liquid and mechanical barometers are used. The first can be called professional, as their design is somewhat more complicated, and the testimony is more precise. At meteorological stations, mercury barometers are used, since they are the most accurate and reliable. Mechanical options are good for their simplicity and reliability, but they are gradually replaced by digital devices.

Such tools and instruments for measurements, like ammeters, are also familiar to everyone. They are needed to measure the current in amperes. The scale of modern instruments is graded in different ways: microamps, kiloamperes, milliamperes, etc. Ammeters are always trying to connect in series: this is necessary to lower the resistance, which will increase the accuracy of the readings taken.


So we talked with you about what control and measuring instruments are. As you can see, all are different from each other and have completely different uses. Some are used in meteorology, others are in machine building, and some are used in the chemical industry. Nevertheless, their goal is to measure the readings, record them and monitor the quality. For this purpose, it is advisable to use precise measuring instruments. But this parameter also contributes to the fact that the device becomes more complicated, and the measurement process depends on more factors.

Similar articles





Trending Now






Copyright © 2018 en.birmiss.com. Theme powered by WordPress.