The first appearance of the column-shaped apple trees falls on the year one thousand nine hundred and sixty-fourth. In Canada, on the apple tree of all the famous varieties of mackintosh, a mutant branch was noticed, which immediately attracted attention. Subsequently, she laid the foundation for a new variety called the leader, from which the hybridization of the varieties began.
Colon-shaped apple tree gives abundant flowering in the second or third year, however, it can not be called a long-liver. Gardens of such apple trees exist from five to ten years. The main feature of these varieties is the lack of growth hormones, which are produced in roots. As a result, a very large number of flower buds is laid, and lateral branches become useless for the future harvest. The central trunk is a powerful base for fruiting. Due to this, you can reduce the distance between trees from fifty to eighty centimeters. This density of planting significantly affects the increase in yield.
Care for apple trees is in certain knowledge, without which a good harvest can not be achieved. The main thing to consider is that a large number of ovaries can not stand even a large tree, and a dwarf colonoid apple-tree, especially, can not cope with such abundant flowering. Therefore, in the first year of life, it is most expedient to remove all the flowers. By the second year, when the tree has already taken root, it is possible to proceed directly to the normalization of the number of fruits. In the process of flowering, the apple-tree is covered with a multitude of flower links consisting of small bouquets. In order to get a normal ovary, in each link you need to leave two bunches, and the rest must be removed, without damaging the young leaves. When the ovary is already visible, you need to remove half the flowers in the bouquets. At the time when the future fruits reach the size of the cherry, their number should be reduced to two in the bouquet, and after they become the size of a walnut, you must leave only one apple in each bouquet.
If the fruits become smaller compared to last year, then this indicates a glut of the tree. Usually stick to ten to fifteen pieces on one plant.
Colon-shaped apple-tree has a superficial root system that does not have a rod, which usually goes deep. The more pronounced the dwarfness of a tree, the more its roots are weaker and more tender. Basically, they depart from the trunk by twenty to twenty-five centimeters. They can be harmed even with the trampling of the earth around them, and loosening is impossible. Therefore, the method of harvesting is used - sow the cereals, then they are periodically mowed, while trying not to damage the trees. Instead of cereals, you can plant dill or lemon balm. They, by the way, very well repel pests.
Watering, which is particularly needed columnar apple, should be permanent and, if possible, drip. Once every two weeks, it is necessary to make a lavage, that is, abundantly to pour the soil, so that the moisture is gone as deeply as possible, and the upper layers are enriched with oxygen. If drip irrigation is not possible, then the apple tree is watered every three days with compulsory mulching.
The main secret of how to cut an apple tree is that the more branches are removed, the more powerful the shoots will be. The closer the branch to the vertical, the more it grows (in comparison with the deflected lower branches). Therefore, the central conductor is not cut off so that unnecessary branches do not form. Proper care ensures the growth of the crown by ten to fifteen centimeters and the formation of two or three lateral branches. In case the central conductor grows poorly, it is severely cut off. Then the top shoot is tied up vertically to the support, and the rest is formed by fruit links, which mostly function for about three to five years.
Of course, there is a lot of trouble with a column-shaped apple tree, but everything will pay off with an excellent harvest of fine quality, which can be assembled without much effort, without bending down and not climbing a tree.