HealthDiseases and Conditions

CNS lesion in newborns: causes, symptoms, treatment methods, consequences

The newborn has not yet fully formed organs and systems, and it takes some time to complete the formation. It is during the growth of the baby that its central nervous system also forms and ripens. The nervous system of the baby helps regulate its normal existence in the world.

In some cases, the CNS lesion of newborns can be diagnosed, which has recently been encountered quite often. Oppression of the nervous system can provoke serious consequences and leave the child with a disability.

The peculiarity of the structure of the nervous system of the newborn

A baby child differs from an adult not only by external discrepancies, but also by the structure of its organism, since all systems and organs are not fully formed. During the formation of the brain, unconditioned reflexes are clearly expressed in the child. Immediately after birth, the level of substances regulating hormones responsible for the functioning of the digestive system rises. At the same time, all the receptors are already developed quite well.

The causes of the pathology of the central nervous system

Causes and consequences of CNS lesions of newborns can be very different. The main factors provoking a disruption of the functioning of the nervous system are:

  • Lack of oxygen, or hypoxia;
  • Birth trauma;
  • Violation of normal metabolism;
  • Infectious diseases, which the future mother suffered during pregnancy.

Lack of oxygen, or hypoxia, occurs when a pregnant woman works in harmful production, with infectious diseases, smoking, and previous abortions. All this violates the general circulation, as well as the saturation of blood with oxygen, and the fetus receives oxygen along with the blood of the mother.

One of the factors leading to the defeat of the nervous system is the birth trauma, since any trauma can provoke a disruption in the maturation and subsequent development of the central nervous system.

The disturbance of normal metabolism occurs for the same reasons as lack of air. Dysmetabolic disorders are also caused by drug addiction and alcoholism of the future mother. In addition, the influence of the nervous system can take medication potent drugs.

Critical to the fetus may be infectious diseases, borne by the expectant mother when bearing a child. Among such infections it is necessary to isolate herpes and rubella. In addition, absolutely any pathogenic microbes and bacteria can provoke irreversible negative processes in the child's body. Basically, problems with the nervous system occur in premature infants.

Periods of CNS pathology

The syndrome of defeat and oppression of the nervous system combines several pathological conditions that arise during the period of intrauterine development, during labor, as well as in the first hours of life of the baby. Despite the presence of a variety of predisposing factors, during the course of the illness there are only 3 periods, namely:

  • acute;
  • Regenerative;
  • Outcome of the disease.

In each period, the CNS lesion in newborns has different clinical manifestations. In addition, children may have a combination of several different syndromes. The severity of each ongoing syndrome allows you to determine the severity of damage to the nervous system.

Acute course of the disease

The acute period lasts for a month. The flow of it directly depends on the degree of damage. With a mild form of lesion, flinches, increased excitability of nervous reflexes, tremor of the chin, sharp uncontrolled limb movements, and sleep disturbances are observed. A child can cry very often for no apparent reason.

With an average degree of severity, there is a decrease in motor activity and muscle tone, weakening of reflexes, mainly sucking. This state of the baby must be alerted. By the end of the first month of life, the available signs can be replaced by hyperexcitability, almost transparent skin color, frequent regurgitation and flatulence. Often a child is diagnosed with a hydrocephalic syndrome, characterized by a rapid increase in the circumference of the head, increased pressure, the bulge of the fontanel, and strange eye movements.

At the most severe degree, coma usually occurs. Such complication requires the child's stay in the hospital under the supervision of a doctor.

Rehabilitation period

The defeat of the CNS in newborns during the course of the recovery period has syndromes:

  • Increased excitability;
  • epileptic;
  • Motor disorders;
  • Delayed development of the psyche.

With prolonged disturbance of muscle tone, there are often delays in the development of the psyche and the presence of impaired motor functions, which are characterized by involuntary movements, triggered by contraction of the muscles of the trunk, face, limbs, eyes. This prevents the normal, purposeful movements of the child.

If the development of the psyche is delayed, the baby begins much later to keep the head on its own, sit, walk, crawl. Also, he does not have enough good facial expressions, reduced interest in toys, a weak cry, a delay in the appearance of babbling and walking. Such delays in the development of the child's psyche must necessarily alert the parents.

Result of disease

Approximately by the year, the central nervous system becomes damaged in newborns, although the main symptoms of the disease gradually go away. The result of the pathology is:

  • Delay in development;
  • Hyperactivity;
  • Cerebroasthenic syndrome;
  • epilepsy.

As a result, there may be infantile cerebral palsy and a child's disability.

Perinatal CNS injury

Perinatal CNS damage in newborns is a collective concept, implying a disruption in the functioning of the brain. Similar disorders are observed in the antenatal, intranatal and neonatal period.

Antenatal begins with the 28th week of intrauterine development and ends after birth. Intranatal includes the period of labor, from the beginning of the course of labor and until the birth of the child. The neonatal period occurs after birth and is characterized by the adaptation of the infants to environmental conditions.

The main reason for the occurrence of perinatal CNS damage in newborns is hypoxia, which develops in case of unsuccessful pregnancy, birth trauma, asphyxia, infectious diseases of the fetus.

The cause of brain damage is intrauterine infection, as well as birth trauma. In addition, there may be a spinal cord injury that occurs with injuries during labor.

Symptoms largely depend on the period of the course of the disease and the severity of the lesion. In the first month after the birth of the child, there is an acute period of the disease, characterized by depression of the nervous system, as well as hyperexcitability. Gradually the muscle tone is normalized. The degree of recovery depends largely on the degree of damage.

The disease is diagnosed in the hospital by a neonatologist. The specialist conducts a comprehensive examination of the baby and on the basis of available signs makes a diagnosis. After discharge from the maternity hospital, the child is under the supervision of a neurologist. For a more accurate diagnosis, a hardware examination is performed.

Treatment should be conducted from the first hours after the birth of the child and the diagnosis. In acute form, therapy is performed strictly in a hospital environment under the constant supervision of a doctor. If the disease has a mild course, then the treatment can be carried out at home under the supervision of a neurologist.

The recovery period is carried out in a complex way, and physiotherapeutic methods, such as physiotherapy, swimming, manual therapy, massages, and speech therapy classes are used together with medications. The main purpose of such methods is to correct mental and physical development in accordance with age-related changes.

Hypoxic-ischemic lesions of the central nervous system

Since often it is hypoxia that provokes the defeat of the nervous system, then every future mother should know what leads to hypoxia and how this can be avoided. Many parents are interested in what is the hypoxic-ischemic lesion of the CNS in newborns. The severity of the main signs of the disease largely depends on the duration of hypoxia of the child in the intrauterine period.

If the hypoxia is short-lived, then the disorders are not so serious, more dangerous is oxygen starvation, which lasts for a long time. In this case, functional brain disorders or even death of nerve cells can occur. To prevent the breakdown of the nervous system in the baby, a woman should be very attentive to her state of health when she is pregnant. If you suspect a disease that causes fetal hypoxia, you should immediately contact a doctor for treatment. Knowing what it is - the hypoxic-ischemic lesion of the CNS in newborns, and what are the signs of the disease, it is possible to prevent the occurrence of pathology during timely treatment.

Forms and symptoms of the course of the disease

The defeat of the CNS in newborns can occur in several different forms, namely:

  • Light;
  • Average;
  • Heavy.

The mild form is characterized by the fact that in the first days of a child's life excessive nervousness of nervous reflexes, weak muscle tone can be observed. There may appear a rolling strabismus or an irregular, wandering movement of the eyeballs. After a while, chills of the chin and limbs may appear, as well as restless movements.

The middle form has such symptoms as lack of emotions in the child, poor muscle tone, paralysis. Cramps, excessive sensitivity, involuntary movement of the eyes can be observed.

The severe form is characterized by severe disorders of the nervous system with its gradual depression. This appears in the form of seizures, kidney failure, impaired intestinal activity, cardiovascular system, respiratory system.


Since the consequences of damage to the central nervous system can be quite dangerous, it is therefore important to diagnose the violations in a timely manner. Sick children mostly behave uncharacteristically for newborns, which is why when you have the first symptoms of the disease, you should definitely contact the doctor for a survey and follow-up treatment.

Initially, the doctor conducts an examination of the newborn, but this is often not enough. At the slightest suspicion of the presence of pathology, the doctor prescribes computer tomography, ultrasound diagnostics, and x-rays. Due to complex diagnostics, it is possible to identify the problem in time and carry out treatment using modern means.

Carrying out the treatment of CNS lesions

Some pathological processes taking place in the body of the baby can be irreversible in the advanced stage, therefore they require urgent measures and timely therapy. Treatment of newborns should be carried out in the first months of their life, because during this period the baby's organism is able to completely restore the impaired brain functions.

Deviations in the CNS are corrected by medication. It includes drugs that improve the nutrition of nerve cells. During the therapy, drugs that stimulate blood circulation are used. With the help of medications, you can reduce or increase muscle tone.

To help sick children recover faster, osteopathic therapy and physiotherapy are used in conjunction with medications. For the rehabilitation course, massage, electrophoresis, reflexology and many other techniques are indicated.

After stabilization of the child's condition, an individual program of supporting complex therapy is developed and regular monitoring of the baby's condition is carried out. During the year, the dynamics of the child's condition is analyzed, other methods of therapy are selected that facilitate the speedy restoration and development of the required skills, skills and reflexes.

Prevention of CNS damage

To prevent the occurrence of a serious and dangerous disease, it is necessary to prevent the CNS lesions. For this, doctors recommend planning pregnancy in advance, in time to pass the required examinations and to abandon bad habits. If necessary, antiviral therapy is performed, all necessary vaccinations are made, and the hormonal background is normalized.

If the CNS lesion is still a failure, it is important to help the newborn from the first hours of his life and to conduct constant monitoring of the baby's condition.

Consequences of CNS damage

Consequences and complications of CNS damage in a newborn child can be very serious, dangerous for health and life, and they are expressed in the form:

  • Severe forms of mental development;
  • Severe forms of motor development, cerebral palsy;
  • Epilepsy;
  • Neurological deficit.

Timely detection of the disease and well-conducted therapy will help get rid of serious health problems and prevent complications.

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