Non-standard thinking today is the most important mechanism for the development of each person. In this regard, the main task is to provide conditions for the formation of students' individuality.
The search for fundamentally new ways is laborious, from a teacher it requires both time and creativity. However, the level of development achieved by the students is the main reward for the teacher. It can be the inculcation of interest in a particular subject, an adequate assessment of the limits of their abilities by the students, a reduction in the psychological stress experienced in the class, the improvement of the quality of the knowledge provided, and the establishment of a special trusting relationship between the student and the teacher. All of the above is achieved through case technology.
Case-technology in education: a general characteristic
The name of the method under consideration is based on the Latin term "incident". It translates as an unusual, confusing event. According to another version, this name is formed from the English case - a briefcase, a suitcase. Case technology in education is a set of specific learning situations that are specifically developed on the basis of factual material for further analysis in the framework of training sessions. In the process of considering these situations, students master the teamwork, learn to analyze, make operational management decisions.
The main feature of the method is the process of studying precedents, in other words, practical situations that took place in the past.
Existing designations of the technology in question
Thus, in foreign publications, the following method names are encountered:
- Business stories;
- Studying the situation;
- Case method.
Our publications call this method as follows:
- AKS (case studies);
- Case method;
- Business situations;
- Situational problems (for the first time the concept was introduced by American researchers J. Wilson, J. Atkinson in 2001).
Case technology in education: what is it?
Its essence lies in the organization of the learning process through the application of descriptions of specific situations. Case-technology in education involves students' comprehension of a real life situation, the description of which reflects a concrete practical problem, and updates the corresponding set of knowledge necessary for mastering in the course of resolving the problem. The problem itself has no unambiguous solutions. In the case, the actions are either presented in the description, which you then need to comprehend (efficiency, consequences), or they are suggested as a way of solving problems. However, at any outcome, the development of a model of a concrete practical action is always represented as an effective means of forming the professional qualities of students.
Case-technology in education - a tool that allows you to apply the available theoretical knowledge to solve practical problems. This method makes it possible to develop in students the independence of thinking, the ability to listen, and in the future to take into account the alternative point of view and reasonably sound their own. Through case studies, students have the opportunity to both demonstrate and improve their assessment, analytical skills, as well as learn teamwork and find rational solutions to existing problems.
What does this method give?
As an interactive method, case technology in education causes predominantly positive emotions on the part of students, providing them with the opportunity to learn theoretical knowledge and acquire practical skills. He influences the professionalization of students, contributing to their maturation, the formation of interest, positive motivation for learning. At the same time, the case-technology in education (the definition was presented earlier) also acts as a way of thinking of the teacher. We can say that this is his specific paradigm, which allows us to think, act differently, to update our existing creative potential.
Requirements that a good case must meet
Case technology in education - an example borrowed from real business, is an information process that gives an opportunity to comprehend the current situation. It is generally accepted that the case must satisfy a number of requirements:
- Meet the clearly stated goal of creation;
- Illustrate a number of aspects of economic life;
- Be relevant;
- Promote analytical thinking;
- Have different solution variations;
- Have an appropriate level of difficulty;
- Do not become obsolete at a rapid pace;
- Display typical situations;
- Lead to a discussion.
The essence of education through the method in question consists in offering each student their options based on his knowledge of luggage and practical experience, intuition. For example, someone will consider changing the marital status of the head of the company a minor detail, while the other, guided by his experience, will consider this fact determinative.
Distinctive features of the method under consideration
It is known that there are six of them:
- Collective development of rational solutions.
- The presence of a single goal.
- The presence of a controlled emotional stress of students.
- The presence of a model of the socio-economic system, whose state is considered in a certain discrete time period.
- Multivariance of solutions (a single solution is essentially absent).
- The presence of a system of collective assessment of activities.
Technological features of the method in question
There are also six:
- Case technology in higher education is a specific type of research technology (analytical).
- This method acts as a technology of collective learning, its most important components are group work and mutual information exchange.
- It can be viewed as a synergetic technology, whose essence is the preparation of procedures for immersing the entire group in a specific situation, shaping the effects of increasing knowledge, sharing discoveries, insight insight, and so on.
- Case technology in education (the English version of the name of the method mentioned earlier) integrates a number of technologies of developmental learning, including procedures for group, collective, individual development and the formation of comprehensive personal qualities of students.
- It acts as a specific type of project technology. Unlike its simple form, within the framework of the method under consideration, a problem is formed along with ways of solving it based on a case that acts both as a technical task and an information source in order to understand alternative options for the most effective actions.
- This method concentrates the significant achievements of technology such as "creating success." It provides activities aimed at activating students, emphasizing their achievements, and stimulating the success of students. Directly achieving success is one of the main forces of the method, as well as the formation of a stable positive motivation, the growth of cognitive activity.
The technology under consideration in the elementary school
Case technology in education (in primary school, for example) is the generalized name of teaching technologies, which are methods for analyzing situations. It assumes a significant individualization of the entire learning process on the basis of an active position on the part of students in the framework of training.
So, the principle of technology consists in drawing up an individual plan at the very beginning of training, providing each student with a case that contains a package of rules, training cards, recommendations for acquaintance with the training material, as well as control questions, tests for self-examination, creative, practical assignments. During the study of the material, the student may request a teacher's consultation.
Developed so-called quests (the game form of the task) in order to maximize the integration of the Internet into different academic subjects. They cover a single problem, subject, academic subject. The result of their work is the preparation by the students of the initial classes of presentations.
They can be in the form:
- Retelling - a demonstration of awareness of the topic studied based on the presentation of materials collected from various sources, in another form: a story, a presentation, a poster;
- Planning, design - development of a project or a plan based on specified conditions;
- Creative task - the creative work of a particular genre: a video, a poem;
- Assessment - justification of a particular point of view;
- Various studies - the study of various phenomena, facts, discoveries based on unique online sources.
The development of speech etiquette by preschool children through the method in question
It is worth recalling that speech etiquette is a set of rules of speech behavior, which are determined by the relationship of speakers, based on the atmosphere of communication. It includes: treatment, greeting, acquaintance, attention, request, invitation, refusal, consent, complaint, apology, sympathy, congratulation, disapproval, gratitude, forgiveness, etc.
Formation of his skills is an integral part of the overall work in the development of children's speech. The main activity is enrichment of speech with words, constructs, which are necessary in everyday communication. Introducing a number of etiquette words into the speech of preschoolers enriches the active vocabulary, and educates attentiveness in the use of these forms, expressions, helps to select relevant language tools in a specific situation.
Case technologies in preschool education allow to form all 3 main components of speech etiquette:
- Mastering various variants of formulas.
- More detailed their "deployment".
- Accompanying the formulas with benevolent intonation, affable mimicry.
Case-situation - a case in which a specific situation is described, a problem is formulated, it is suggested to find a way to solve it. Preschool children after familiarizing themselves with the problem independently conduct an analysis of the situation, then diagnose the problem, voice ideas, decisions in the course of communication with peers.
Methods of case-technology
There are six of them:
- Method of incidents (independent search for information, its collection, systematization, analysis);
- Game design (the process of creating or improving projects: research, search, creative, analytical, prognostic);
- Method of parsing business correspondence (working with documents, papers that relate to a particular organization, problem, situation);
- Situational role-playing game (creation in the form of a staging of a true historical, legal, social and psychological situation with subsequent assessment of actions, behavior of participants);
- Case study (group analysis of the presented situation, development of different variants of problems, search for their practical solutions, evaluation of the proposed algorithms, choice of the best);
- Method of discussion (exchange of views in accordance with the rules).