Blood test: types, decoding with indicators

The blood test is one of the most common and informative methods of primary diagnosis. According to its results, it is possible to judge the state of organs, to put, confirm or deny the diagnosis, to determine at what stage the disease is located and to adjust the prescribed treatment, to determine the level of hormones for their further correction. A blood test, the types of which are known to all doctors, are carried out not only by those who are sick, but also by completely healthy people who undergo routine medical examinations once a year (in kindergartens and schools, at work, in the army). Therefore, probably there is no person in our country who has never encountered mysterious and slightly frightening figures in the tables with the results of the analysis.

Blood test: types

There is a huge number of different blood tests:

  • On the hormones.
  • To sugar.
  • Test for the determination of allergens.
  • Immunological.
  • On coagulability.
  • On oncomarkers.
  • To confirm the pregnancy and others.

To begin with, consider the two most common and at the same time incomprehensible to a simple patient analysis:

  • Biochemical.
  • Clinical (general / expanded).


Before we learn the norms of biochemical analysis of blood in adults, the table of which will be given below, we will understand what it is needed for.

The direction of biochemistry is the same piece of paper that general practitioners give out daily in stacks. He is appointed according to the plan to every patient once a year to monitor his health and after any complicated illness that has been transferred, as well as to any person who has entered the hospital.

Blood sampling is done only from the vein (most often in the elbow joint area, but there are also possible options for fencing from the veins on the hands, feet, shins) and always in the morning, on an empty stomach. After the procedure, the test tubes are sent to a special laboratory. The results of the analysis are usually ready the next day.

Norms of biochemical analysis of blood in adults: table

Index unit of measurement The lower limit of the norm The upper limit of the norm

Sugar / glucose

Mmol / l




Mmol / l



Non-protein nitrogen of blood (residual)

Mmol / l




Micromol / l



Lipids common

G / l




Mmol / l



Low-density lipoproteins, LDL / LDL cholesterol

Mmol / l

Males: 2.02

Female: 1.92

Males: 4.79

Female: 4.51

High-density lipoproteins, HDL / HDL cholesterol

Mmol / l

Men: .72

Female: 0.68

Males: 1.63

Female: 2.28

The coefficient of atherogenicity



Triglycerides (the norm strongly depends on sex and age, values for the age of 35-40 years are given)

Mmol / l

Men: 0.61

Female: 0.45

Men: 3.62

Female: 1.99


Mmol / l




Μmol / liter




G / l




G / l



AST (aspartate aminotransferase)

A piece of chalk



ALT (alanine aminotransferase)

A piece of chalk



Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase

Μmol / l

Men: 15

Female: 10

Men: 106

Female: 66

Alkaline phosphatase

A piece of chalk




Mmol / l




Mmol / l




Mmol / l




Mmol / l




Μmol / l

Men: 11.64

Women: 8.95





In view of the savings in our district hospitals, doctors often do not consider it necessary to send patients to a generally accepted full-fledged analysis, and then certain types of biochemical blood tests are formed, in the directions of which only certain characteristics will be highlighted.

For example, if a patient complains of liver problems, he will take blood for bilirubin (common) and total protein, albumin, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-GTP, C-reactive protein, alkaline phosphatase.

If a doctor suspects that the patient has diabetes, he will be primarily biochemical research on sugar (glucose) to confirm or refute the assumption.

Patients are all different and experienced doctor, if there are direct symptoms of the disease, will not spend the patient's money and the hospital resources in vain. After all, several times a year to conduct a complete general examination of the blood, without special evidence, is not necessary.

Clinical blood test

The so-called blood test, the types of which need only be performed on an empty stomach (regardless of whether the finger will take blood or from the vein).

Today, measurements of indicators in this study are carried out automatically, on special hematological analyzers.

The main indicators of a clinical blood test are:

  • Hemoglobin is an erythrocyte component that transports oxygen to tissues and organs. A decrease in the amount of hemoglobin leads to oxygen deficiency of the tissues. The norm in women is 120-140 g / l, for men - 135-160 g / l.
  • Leukocytes (number). Leukocytes are blood cells, the main function of which is to protect against microorganisms, antigens, and tumor cells. Norm: (4 - 9) * 10 9 / liter.
  • ESR is an indicator of pathology in the body. In women, the norm is up to 12 mm / h, men - up to 8 mm / h;
  • Hematocrit - red blood cells. If the hematocrit is elevated, we can assume the presence of erythrocytosis or leukemia. If lowered - anemia, hyperhydration, pregnancy. The norm in women is 0,360-0,460 l / l, in males 0,400-0,480 l / l;
  • Erythrocytes (number). An increase in the number of red blood cells can speak of a thickening of blood, malignancy, kidney disease. Reduction - about blood loss, anemia, pregnancy, etc. The norm in men (4-5,15) * 10 12 liters, in women - (3,7-4,7) * 10 12 liters.

What else can the blood test show?

To answer the question, what are the blood tests, you first need to understand what blood is and why it is needed.

Blood is the tissue of the body, consisting of plasma (fluid) and cells (leukocytes, erythrocytes and platelets). It circulates through the vessels under the action of the contractions of the heart and nourishes all the organs of the human body.

Blood is necessary for a person to:

  • Carry carbon dioxide from tissues to the lungs, and oxygen - back.
  • Deliver nutrients to the tissue cells.
  • Regulate body temperature.
  • Transfer the waste and harmful substances to the kidneys and easy for subsequent removal of them from the body.
  • With the help of hormone transfer, connect all the organs and systems among themselves;
  • Provide protection of the body.
  • Ensure consistency within the body.
  • Provide the work of organs, giving them tension from the heart.

Thus, we understand that the composition of the blood can talk about many problems in the body: the violations in the work of each of the systems, each organ of the human body. It is necessary only in time to submit a blood test, the types of which the doctor will choose, and solve this riddle.

Thyroid hormone

Now practically every fifth inhabitant of our large country can find some malfunctions and disorders in the thyroid gland. If, upon examination, the doctor suspects changes, the patient will be referred for ultrasound (ultrasound) examination of the thyroid gland, as well as a blood test for TSH (for the amount of thyroid-stimulating hormone). After violations in the work of this body lead to infertility, libido disorders, problems with mental work, accelerates and makes heavier the course of any infectious and inflammatory process in the body.

Indications for delivery of blood for the amount of thyroid hormone

They are as follows:

  • Living in an area with iodine deficiency.
  • After any surgical treatment.
  • In case of problems with conceiving and bearing a child.
  • When using hormonal means of protection from pregnancy (control TTG once a year).

With previously identified violations in the work of the gland, to control the course of the disease and the selection of medications.

Deviations from the norm in this analysis can talk about such problems as:

  • Hypothyroidism (decreased function of the thyroid gland).
  • Hyperthyroidism (increased function of the gland).

In time, revealed small deviations from the norm are amenable to a wonderful drug correction, and serious and late-identified pathologies may require surgical treatment. In the event that a patient is found to have an excess of thyroid-stimulating hormone, he is ultimately prescribed ultrasound of the thyroid gland and, most likely, life-long hormone replacement therapy.

The norm of indices of thyroid-stimulating hormone

To clarify the diagnosis and control over the course of the disease, a detailed blood test for TSH is prescribed, which includes:

  • Free T3 (a hormone that is responsible for oxygen exchange). The norm is 2.6-5.7 pmol / l.
  • Free T4 (the hormone responsible for protein metabolism). The norm is 9-22 mmol / l.
  • Antibodies to the protein thyroglobulin (to exclude the diseases of the autoimmune system). The norm is up to 18 units / ml.

It is important before taking blood for hormones TSG to refuse from taking alcohol, hormonal contraceptives and other medicines containing hormones. It is also necessary to limit physical activity and to refuse for a day from drinking.

Blood clotting

It happens that on a routine physical examination or when passing the analysis, a violation of the density of the blood is detected. If this violation was found during biochemical analysis, the therapist will give direction for an additional blood coagulation test. As it is called scientifically it is necessary to remember - coagulogram.

Also indications for analysis are:

  • Signs of prolonged bleeding, bruising even from a slight depression.
  • The upcoming operation.
  • Diseases of the heart, liver, blood vessels.
  • Pregnancy.
  • Low immunity.

The coagulation analysis includes a large set of indicators:

Index Norm
Prothrombin index 12-20 seconds.
APTTV 38-55 seconds
Fibrinogen plasma 2.0-3.5 g / l
Thrombin time 11-17.8 seconds.
Recalcification of plasma 60-120 sec.
Tolerance to heparin 3-11 min
Retraction of the blood clot From 44% to 65%

If a person is assigned an analysis of blood coagulability, as it is called, it can not be memorized. Each patient is given a special direction, which will indicate the time, the name of the study and the necessary requirements for its conduct, depending on the alleged diagnosis:

  • From the finger, a material is taken for the evaluation of blood coagulation capillary.
  • The collection of material from the vein is made for evaluation of venous blood.

This analysis, like many others, must be done on an empty stomach.

Analysis for female hormones

A good hormonal background is an important condition for the normal functioning of the whole organism. It is he who determines normal sleep, good health, ability to work physically. The study of hormonal background is necessary for women with the appearance of such symptoms:

  • Insomnia.
  • Weight gain or sudden weight loss.
  • Malfunctions of the menstrual cycle.
  • Irritability.

With an imbalance of the hormonal background, women develop problems in terms of the health of the reproductive system (including fibroids, cysts, polycystosis), mental disorders, obesity / exhaustion, violations or stopping menstruation, infertility, male body hair growth type and much more.

So, the blood test for female sex hormones includes:

  • Follicle-stimulating hormone.
  • Prolactin.
  • Luteinizing hormone.
  • Estriol.
  • Progesterone.
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone.
  • DHEA sulfate.

It is worth remembering that the level of many hormones varies significantly, depending on the stage of the cycle, so you must carefully follow the doctor's instructions before donating blood. Any analysis on hormones is always carried out on an empty stomach, 1-2 hours after awakening.

Male sex hormones

  • Testosterone.
  • Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate.

The test for male sex hormones can be assigned to both a man and a woman. The thing is that it is the androgens responsible for the attraction (libido) in both women and men. And in particular testosterone affects also the work of the sebaceous glands, muscles, brain.

An analysis of the number of androgens, both men and women, is given on any day in the morning on an empty stomach.

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