### Technologies, Electronics

# Average consumption of electricity by household appliances: features of calculation and recommendations

Reducing the cost of maintaining a house and taking care of nature are the two main reasons for the need to reduce electricity consumption.

If the consumer does not use alternative options for generating electricity, it means that it receives it from heat, hydro, or nuclear power plants. Classical energy causes considerable damage to the environment, even with modern means for cleaning emissions and processing radioactive waste. Reducing electricity consumption will lead to a reduction in the load of power plants and will save mineral resources. Nevertheless, most homeowners are thinking about energy saving, having received a receipt for payment of utilities with an impressive total amount.

Regardless of the reason that prompted the owner of a house or apartment to think about reducing energy consumption, it is useful to know the factors that determine the volume of its consumption. ** **

## Factors affecting the total amount of energy consumed

Electricity consumption is directly dependent on the power of household appliances, the time of their use and the overall energy efficiency of the house. Among the factors that determine the cost of electricity, we can distinguish:

- Class of energy saving of household appliances.
- The level of thermal insulation of the building.
- Use of alternative energy.

When choosing equipment for the house, pay attention not only to power, but also to the energy-saving class. The energy efficiency of the device is calculated by the manufacturer based on its parameters and power consumption. In this case, seven classes marked from A to G are allocated. Classes A + and A ++ have the highest energy efficiency.

*Note that high energy efficiency is interrelated, but not equal to low consumption.*

Good thermal insulation leads to a comfortable microclimate and makes it possible to reduce spending on electricity without losing heat in the house. The use of solar panels, windmills or mini-HPP will fully or partially meet the needs of the homeowner in electricity.

## Electricity consumption of electric heating system

In winter, a significant share of the costs when paying for utilities is in heating. This problem is faced not only by owners of private houses, but also by residents of multi-apartment buildings, who are forced to use convectors to maintain a comfortable temperature. Old high-rise buildings have a low energy efficiency class. The apartments are cool even in central heating.

The heart of any heat supply system in a private house is a boiler. Owners of small houses in the area, in which there are no interruptions in the supply of energy, elect electric boilers. The electricity consumption is high, but this fact compensates for the efficiency approaching 100%, and the ease of installation.

Consider the factors that affect the energy consumption of the boiler:

- Boiler characteristics: power of the device, duration of operation, number of circuits, tank capacity.
- Heating circuit: the amount and type of coolant.
- Building parameters: the volume of the room, the number of openings in the walls, the material of the walls and the quality of the thermal insulation.
- Climate.

The average annual calculation of heating costs without calculating heat losses and other factors is as follows:

- Multiply the boiler output by the number of hours of operation per day.
- Multiply the daily intake by 30, and then by the number of months that the heating season in your region is.
- Divide this value in half to take into account the average heat load.

Automated control systems for heating intensity allow to regulate electricity consumption. Heating costs less when installing a room thermostat with a programmable controller.

## Energy consumption of devices for water heating

For heating water used electric flow and storage water heaters, which have differences in energy costs and in different ways affect the consumption of electricity. The water heated by the boiler should suffice for the needs of all family members. Their quantity determines the amount of water consumed and the costs of heating it.

Here are the main factors affecting the energy consumption indicators, taking into account which you can make the necessary calculations:

- Type of water heater.
- Boiler characteristics: tank capacity, power, heating rate.
- Daily volume of water.

The flow type of the water heater is characterized by higher power, but the cost of its consumption is on average less than that of the cumulative one. The storage boiler has a thermal insulation layer that hampers heat loss, and a lower power. Nevertheless, due to automatic heating and heat losses, the energy consumption of the storage water heater is higher within the same period. The choice of the type of water heater is far from obvious, and depends on the stability of the voltage and the absence of interruptions in the supply of electricity, as well as the required water temperature.

## Power consumption for lighting

The share of lighting costs in a household in winter is about one-third of all expenses. This is an important article on the list of utilities, which requires revision.

Reduce spending on lighting can be changed all the light bulbs on LED, which have greater energy efficiency with a higher light output factor and longer life. The cost of an LED lamp is 5-6 times higher than that of a fluorescent lamp, and the operating time is increased by a factor of 10. Thus, the purchase of LED lighting in terms of life is economically more reasonable.

## Table of electricity consumption by household appliances

The presented table shows the share of energy consumed by various household appliances. It will show which devices account for a higher percentage of costs and will help reduce them.

Name of household appliances | Percentage of consumption |

Fridge | thirty |

Lighting | 29 |

Washing machine and dishwasher | 21 |

TV | 7th |

A computer | 6th |

Microwave | 5 |

A vacuum cleaner | 2 |

*Pay attention to household appliances at the top of the table.* *If possible, replace them with modern technology with a higher energy-saving class.*

## Methods for calculating the average consumption of electricity

There are several ways to calculate the average power consumption of household appliances available in the house.

- According to the annual meter readings, you can find out the average monthly consumption;
- By power or by the strength of the current and voltage of the household appliance.

*To speed up the calculations, download and install a power calculator that not only automatically does all the necessary calculations, but also helps to develop an energy cost optimization program.*

On the meter it is easy to determine the power consumption - the kW-hours indicated in the previous readings subtract from the current value of the counter, not taking into account the figure after the decimal point.

In more detail, we will consider the calculations based on the characteristics of household appliances.

## Counting the flow rate by the power of the household appliance

In how to determine the electric power consumption of an electrical appliance by capacity, there is no difficulty if it retains a label with technical characteristics. It can be found on the back of the case. Consumption in kilowatt-hours is calculated by the manufacturer on the basis of the average values for tests under different operating conditions.

If the label is not consumption, and electrical parameters, then calculate the flow must be done manually:

- Find the power on the label of the household appliance;
- Multiply this value by the average amount of time of day use, expressed in hours.

Example of counting:

- The power of the pump is 600 W, the operating time is 1 hour. Consumption = 600 * 1 = 600 W / h or 0.6 kW / h. Thus, the daily pump consumption is 0.6 kWh. Multiply daily consumption by 30 days, and you will receive an average monthly expenditure.

*Note that the manufacturer indicates the maximum, and not the average value of the power of the device.* *These values may vary.* *As a rule, the average is much lower.*

## Counting the flow by current and voltage

Counting the flow is easier to do on power, but in some cases this indicator is not indicated on the label. Voltage is a constant value, which for Russia is 220 volts. The current is measured in amperes (A). If there is an input and output current value on the label, use the Input.

- Multiply the input current by the voltage in the network to obtain power;
- Multiply the result by the average amount of time of day use, expressed in hours.

Example of counting:

- The current of the notebook power supply is 3.5 A, the voltage is 220 V. Consumption = 3.5 * 220 * 1 (hour) = 770 600 W / h or 0.77 kW / h.

## Recommendations for energy saving and increasing energy efficiency

Analyze the energy consumption table and identify the weak points in the energy saving system of your home. The first positions, the total share of which is more than half of all costs, is occupied by the refrigerator and lighting devices.

To reduce the proportion of costs involved in lighting, more often use natural light and replace the bulbs with fluorescent or LED. The refrigerator should be moved away from the wall to vent the space next to the compressor.

Update the park of your household appliances and think about the use of alternative energy sources.

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