Application of platinum. Where and how is platinum used

The most expensive of the triple noble metals is, of course, platinum. As prevalence in the earth's crust, it is one of the rarest elements. и стоит очень дорого. In its pure form, platinum is almost never found and is very expensive. применение платины в разных сферах народного хозяйства действительно очень широко. Despite this, the use of platinum in various spheres of the national economy is indeed very wide. In some cases, this metal can even be indispensable.

History of the discovery

All the nuggets of platinum found so far are her alloys with iridium, palladium, osmium, iron and rhodium. Sometimes there are also compounds of this metal with nickel or copper. Actually platinum itself in its pure form is a metal of brilliant white-silver shade. Its name is due to the Spanish conquistador, who conquered South America. Externally, platinum is very similar to silver, but differs much more refractory. бнаружившие в Южной Америке металл, похожий на серебро, сначала просто выкидывали его. The Spanish conquistadors, who had found metal in South America that looked like silver, at first simply threw it out. platina , что в переводе означает «серебришко». In this case, the conquerors scornfully called it platina , which in translation means "silver."

In our country platinum was discovered in 1819. Its industrial production began five years later. применение платины ограничивалось в России в основном лишь металлургией. Initially, the use of platinum was limited in Russia mainly to metallurgy. в качестве добавки при производстве высококачественных сталей. It was used as an additive in the production of high-quality steels. 1828 г. платина нашла и еще одно применение. However, in 1828 platinum found another application. о указу царя монетный двор России начал чеканку денег из этого металла . Then the Russian mint began to coin money from this metal about the tsar's decree .

е платина была получена только в 1859 году химиком Девелем. In pure form , platinum was obtained only in 1859 by chemist Devel. она в России добывалась исключительно на Верх-Исетском, Билимбаевском и Невьянском приисках. Initially, it was mined in Russia exclusively at Verkh-Isetsky, Bilimbaevsky and Nevyansky mines. ее месторождения. In 1824, other rich deposits were discovered .

Chemical and physical characteristics

тносящийся к группе 6-го переходного периода системы Менделеева. Platinum is a metal that affects the group of the 6th transition period of the Mendeleyev system. Its main properties are:

  • infusibility;

  • Non-volatility;

  • The ability to crystallize into cubic face-centered lattices.

In hot form, platinum is well welded and rolled. Also, this metal can absorb oxygen quite strongly. The table below shows the main characteristics of platinum:

Basic properties of platinum




3 21.45 g / dm 3

Melting temperature

1769 С

Specific electrical resistance

9.85 μΩ · cm


390-420 MPa


173 GPa

применение платины в промышленности, м едицине и других отраслях народного хозяйства оправдано, помимо всего прочего, и химической ее устойчивостью. The wide application of platinum in industry, the world and other branches of the national economy is justified, among other things, by its chemical stability. этот металл только в царской водке и в броме. This metal dissolves only in royal vodka and in bromine. лишь с немногочисленной группой веществ. When heated, platinum can only react with a small group of substances.

The main spheres of use of platinum

The use of platinum in the jewelry industry is justified first of all by its nobility, rarity and beauty. In this way, until the middle of the last century, this metal was mainly used. Only a few percent of the total volume of platinum mined was used by doctors and dentists. Today, the growth in demand for this precious metal is growing steadily. The unique physical and chemical properties of platinum, in addition to jewelry production, make it unusually in demand in a wide range of industries and national economy:

  • in medicine;

  • Space industry;

  • Chemical industry;

  • Air and shipbuilding;

  • In the glass industry;

  • In engineering.

This noble metal is used, of course, in banking.

Use of platinum in the jewelry industry

Of course, this metal is used most widely for making various kinds of ornaments. Annually in the world jewelry industry about 50 tons of platinum are used. Made of this metal can be a variety of jewelry. равно как и цепочки, серьги, браслеты и колье, не только красивы, но и долговечны. Rings of platinum, as well as chains, earrings, bracelets and necklaces, are not only beautiful, but also durable.

The most popular in the jewelry industry is the metal of the 950th test. In such an alloy is 95% of the platinum itself and 5% of iridium. Metal of similar composition is characterized by a high degree of elasticity and hardness. кольца из платины в сплаве с иридием способны прослужить максимально долго. Chains, bracelets and rings of platinum in an alloy with iridium are able to last as long as possible.

Application in the production of nitric acid and other chemicals

In engineering, platinum is used mainly as a catalyst. It is this metal that is the best oxidizer of ammonia to NO in the production of nitric acid. 0,05-0,09 мм . Use it in this case, usually in the form of a wire mesh with a diameter of 0.05-0.09 mm . применяется не платина в чистом виде, а ее сплав с родием. In the production of nitric acid, platinum in its pure form and its alloy with rhodium are most often used. This allows a little cheaper catalyst, increases its activity and increases shelf life.

Platinum is used in the technical industry, of course, not only in the production of nitric acid. Catalysts made of this metal can accelerate many other chemical reactions. Platinum is used, for example, for the hydrogenation of aromatic and technical hydrocarbons, ketones, acetylene, etc. It is also used in sulfuric acid production to produce SO 3 or SO 2 .

Application in oil refining

In industrial enterprises of this specialization, platinum is actually used quite widely. In this case, it is also used as a catalyst. In oil refining using this metal in special installations receive gasoline. Of course, high-quality. In the oil refining industry, platinum is used not as a mesh, but in the form of a fine powder. In addition to gasoline, this metal also produces technical hydrogen and aromatic hydrocarbons.

Of course, other catalysts, such as molybdenum, aluminum, etc., can also be used in the oil refining industry. However, in comparison with them, platinum has such undeniable advantages as durability, high activity and increased efficiency.

The use of platinum in electrical engineering and instrument making

One of the advantages of this metal is that it has stable electrical and mechanical properties. This made platinum unusually in demand in such branches of the national economy as:

  • radio engineering;

  • Electrical engineering;

  • automation;

  • Precise instrument making.

позволяет изготавливать качественные контакты высокоточных приборов. The use of platinum in electronics makes it possible to produce high-quality contacts of high-precision instruments. In this case, the metal is usually used in an alloy with iridium. контактов печей сопротивления и разного рода работающих от сети устройств. Very often, for example, platinum is used to make contacts of resistance ovens and various kinds of devices operating from the network . в технике применяется также сплав этого металла с кобальтом. Sometimes an alloy of this metal with cobalt is also used in engineering. This material is used in the manufacture of magnets, which have a huge attraction force at small sizes.

The use of platinum in the automotive and space industries

платина также нашла довольно широкое использование . In these areas of the national economy, platinum has also found widespread use . In the automotive industry, this metal is most often used as a catalyst in the exhaust gas neutralizers. In this case, it is used as a spray in ceramic monoliths.

космической промышленности и самолетостроении этот металл используют в основном для изготовления электродов топливных элементов. In the space industry and aircraft construction, this metal is used primarily for the manufacture of fuel cell electrodes. Similarly, platinum was used, for example, in all the spacecraft of the Apollo series.

Use in medicine

этой сфере позволяет сохранить жизни тысячам больных. The use of platinum in this field allows saving lives for thousands of patients. The value of this metal in this case lies in the fact that it does not exist in medicine. к примеру, изготавливают специальные хирургические инструменты, стерилизовать которые можно в пламени спиртовой горелки. Of platinum, for example, special surgical instruments are manufactured, which can be sterilized in the flame of an alcohol burner. в отличие от изготовленных из других металлов, не окисляются. With this treatment, they, unlike those made from other metals, do not oxidize.

хирургией, конечно же, не ограничивается, может использоваться также в стоматологии, кардиологии и слухопротезировании. Platinum, the use of which in medicine , of course, is not limited to surgery, can also be used in dentistry, cardiology and hearing care. ачестве напылителя при изготовлении инструментов, предназначенных для лечения зубов. Often, for example, it is used as a spray for the manufacture of tools designed to treat teeth. изготовленные из ее сплава с иридием . In cardiology and hearing anemia, electrodes made of its alloy with iridium are used . применяют в основном для стимуляции сердечной деятельности. They are used mainly to stimulate cardiac activity. They are also often used for the manufacture of implants intended for people with hearing loss.

The use of platinum in the glass industry

пом имо всего прочего, широко используемый п ри производстве высококачественной оптики. Platinum is a metal, which, among other things, is widely used in the production of high-quality optics. ее в сплаве с родием часто применяют при изготовлении фильер стеклянного волокн а, толщина которого зачастую не превышает 1 мкм. It is also often used in alloy with rhodium in the manufacture of glass fiber spinnerets , a, the thickness of which often does not exceed 1 μm. акой металл способен легко выдерживать тысячи часов нагрева до 1450 С. Также сплав родия с платиной практически никак не реагирует на сильные перепады температур и стоек к коррозии. Such a metal can easily withstand thousands of hours of heating up to 1450 C. Also, an alloy of rhodium with platinum practically does not react to strong temperature changes and corrosion resistance.

Among other things, this metal is also very often used in the manufacture of various kinds of equipment designed to produce high-quality glass. Such mechanisms are not deformed and do not oxidize during production. They also do not react with the glass itself. Very often in this industry are used, for example, platinum crucibles. It is in them that the widely known and very expensive Czech glass is made.

Application in the chemical industry

In this case, platinum is also used mainly for making crucibles and other laboratory equipment - cups, resistance thermometers , etc. Such products are used mainly in the manufacture of various kinds of ultrapure substances. In semiconductor crystals there should not be, for example, a single foreign atom per million of its own. It is these results that allow us to achieve the use of platinum equipment.

Instead of concluding

рассмотренных выше областях целесообразно и оправдано . The use of platinum in the areas discussed above is reasonable and justified . But of course, this metal can be used in other branches of the national economy. For example, often crucibles made of platinum are used for growing crystals for lasers and contacts in the technique of weak currents. в антивозрастных косметических кремах и лосьонах, лекарствах против рака и т. д. Also made of this metal are the holders of arrows compasses, use it in anti-aging cosmetic creams and lotions, anti-cancer drugs, etc.

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