Anti-TPO is a sensitive test for the diagnosis of autoimmune thyroiditis

Along with the diseases of the cardiovascular system, the growth and endocrine disorders - diabetes mellitus and thyroid lesions of various nature - are progressing.

Among the latter, hypothyroidism takes a special place, since its appearance in childhood causes a serious lack of mental and physical development of the child. Most often this is the so-called autoimmune thyroiditis, or Hoshimoto's goiter. In this disease can occur in three clinical forms. It is hypertrophic, at which compensatory hyperplasia of the thyroid gland arises , atrophic, developing in the second stage of the disease and characterized by replacement of the normal structure with connective tissue, and focal, in which the lesion covers only one part of the organ.

Value of analysis

Often the only accurate evidence of the disease is the detection in the blood of anti-TPO, that is, antibodies to thyroid peroxidase , the main enzyme for the formation of triiodothyronine and thyroxine.

Due to their activity, iodination of thyroglobulin, the structural protein of the thyroid gland, is blocked, which blocks further stages of the synthesis of its hormones. Since this is the most sensitive test in the diagnosis of goitre Hashimoto, if the doctor suspects this disease, a hormonal blood test is prescribed. Anti-TPO in case of a positive result will be elevated, and then the diagnosis will be fully proved. Only in this case the doctor will have the right to recommend adequate therapy and provide a favorable prognosis for the patient. Especially important is this test for pregnant women, since if they have anti-TPO, this indicates a serious risk of postpartum thyroiditis and the harmful effects of pathology on the fetus. The level of these antibodies is normally 0-5.6 IU per ml of blood serum, and its decrease can be observed in healthy people under the age of 50 years. But positive (anti-TPO above the norm) test can be in other thyroid diseases, so the diagnosis of such pathologies must be carried out comprehensively, together with analysis on T3, T4 and TTG.

Comprehensive research

Hashimoto disease occurs when there are failures in the human immune system, namely, when it is hyperreacting or reducing T-suppressor activity. Therefore (along with anti-TPO), other antibodies are found in the blood of patients: as the thyroid gland structures (to the thyreoglobulin of the microsomal fraction), and completely different organs. This causes its combination with other, nonendocrine, pathologies of autoimmune genesis. In addition to tests on anti-TPO and hormones, an instrumental confirmation of the Hashimoto goiter is necessary. Thus, with ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland , the heterogeneity of its structure may be revealed, the hypoechoigenicity of some areas, the presence of calcifications and the thickening of the capsule. The disease forecast becomes more severe in those cases if nodes appear in the organ, since in about 5% of cases they become malignant.

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