Admiral Ushakov: biography. Russian naval commander, Admiral Fedor Fedorovich Ushakov

In the history of our army and navy, outstanding personalities are missing. These are people who exerted the strongest influence on the development of not only the military industry, but the whole statehood of the country. One of these was Admiral Ushakov. The biography of this remarkable person is given in this article.

About his fame speaks at least the fact that the fleet of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union had several ships named after him. In particular, even one cruiser of the Soviet Navy. Since 1944 there are orders and Medal of Ushakov. A number of objects in the Arctic were named after him.

Initial period of life

Fedor Ushakov, the future admiral, was born in the tiny village of Burnakovo, lost in the open spaces of the Moscow province, in February 1745. He came from a landowner's family, but not too rich. It is not surprising that he had to go early to study, so as not to force parents to spend money on its maintenance. In 1766 he studied in the Cadet Corps, having received the rank of midshipman. His naval career began on the Baltic Sea. Ushakov immediately showed himself as a capable commander and a brave man.

Beginning of service, first successes

Already in 1768-1774, during the first war with the Turks, Ushakov exercised command at once several battleships. He also participated in the heroic defense of the Crimean coast.

In the Baltic Fedor Ushakov commanded the frigate "Saint Paul", and later on it made a transition to the Mediterranean Sea. He carried out important assignments for transportation of timber at the St. Petersburg shipyard. In 1780, he was even appointed commander of the Imperial yacht, but the future admiral refuses this boring post and submits a petition for transfer back to the line battleship. Then Ushakov receives the rank of captain of the second rank.

From 1780 to 1782 he commanded the battleship Victor. During this period, Ushakov is constantly on raids: he and his crew are guarding trade routes from English privateers, who at that time completely unbuttoned.

Role in the creation of the Black Sea Fleet

One act is especially known to Admiral Ushakov. His biography includes the fact that this man was one of the founders of the entire Black Sea fleet. Since 1783, he was engaged in the construction of the Sevastopol base for the fleet, personally supervised the training of new crews on ships. By 1874 Ushakov became the captain of the first rank. Then he receives the Order of St. Vladimir of the 4th degree for his struggle against the plague epidemic in Kherson. After that, he was entrusted with the command of the ship "Saint Paul" and gave the rank of brigade captain.

War with the Turks

During the next war with the Turks, from 1787 to 1791, it was with Ushakov's name that the most prominent victories of the Russian fleet were associated. Thus, in the sea battle near the island of Fidonisi (now called Zmeiny), which occurred on July 3, 1788, Admiral Fyodor Ushakov personally directed the vanguard of four frigates. The Turkish fleet at that time had 49 ships at once, and Eski-Ghassan commanded them.

We had only 36 ships, and linear ships - five times less. It was Ushakov, skillfully maneuvering and not allowing the Turks to approach, managed to drive away their two advanced battleships, turning their guns to flight. For three hours this battle lasted, according to which the whole Turkish fleet preferred to retreat. For this battle, the future Admiral Ushakov (his biography is described in the article) was granted to the St. George cavaliers.

New feats

The next two years they did not ask for naval battles . Nevertheless, in 1790 under the control of Ushakov the entire Black Sea Fleet was transferred. The active officer immediately began training the crews of the main line ships. Soon there was a chance to check the work: Sinop's squadron of Rear Admiral Ushakov bombed nearly thirty enemy ships. In response, the entire Turkish squadron went to the raid. Anticipating this, the talented commander in advance withdrew his fleet and anchored it near the Kerch Strait in order to block the breakthrough of Turkish ships to the Crimea and prevent the landing of enemy troops. Thus began the Kerch sea battle. Subsequently, it was included in almost all textbooks on naval combat, since the techniques used by the admiral at the time were really advanced for their time.

New Battle

However, soon Ushakov Fedor Fedorovich (whose biography contains many such episodes) decided to meet the Turkish squadron. This temptation was insurmountable for the Turks: they relied on the tailwind, they decided to fly to the Russian fleet and destroy it.

However, their intention for Ushakov was obvious, and therefore he timely gave the command to rebuild and allocate several battleships for a reliable cover of the avant-garde. When the latter linked the Turks to battle, the other Russian ships arrived in time. By three o'clock in the afternoon the wind began to favor our fleet. The ships of the two squadrons quickly began to approach each other, and soon their artillerymen entered into a tense duel.

Russian gunners showed themselves in this battle just superb. Soon a large part of the Turkish ships could not participate in the battle because of the strong disruptions of the rigging. A little more, and the Russians began to celebrate a complete and unconditional victory. The Turks managed to escape only thanks to the best characteristics of their compact and brisk ships. So the history of the Black Sea Fleet was replenished with yet another glorious victory.

Many historians point out that in that battle the enemy did not lose a single ship sunk, but the state of the Turkish squadron was such that it could not go into battle in the coming months. In addition, their crews suffered huge losses in manpower, and the landing forces were seriously battered. The Russians killed only 29 people. It was in honor of this victory in 1915 that one of the ships of the fleet was named "Kerch".

The Battle near Tendra

At the end of the summer of 1790, a fairly significant battle took place at Cape Tendra, where Ushakov's squadron suddenly came upon the Turks, who were at rest at anchor. The Admiral neglected all the traditions of the fleet, ordering him to attack on the move, without long rebuilding. Confidence in success was fueled by the availability of a traditional reserve of four frigates.

The Turkish squadron was capudan-pasha Hussein. He was an experienced naval commander, but even he had to retreat after several hours of intense fighting. The flagship of the Russian fleet "Nativity of Christ" under the command of Ushakov himself fought simultaneously with three enemy ships. When the Turks fled, Russian ships pursued them until the darkness, after which they had to anchor.

The next day, the battle resumed with renewed vigor. Several hours of battle ended in the complete victory of our fleet. For this admiral granted the Order of St. George 2 nd degree, as well as half a thousand serfs attached to the Mogilev province. After this, Fedor Fedorovich Ushakov, in short, became a "thoroughbred" landowner-landowner. However, in his estates he almost never visited, constantly being busy with the fleet.

The battle of Kaliakria, new victories

On land, Turkey suffered permanent damage. Sultan-pasha decided to recoup, taking revenge on the sea. Military ships were collected throughout the empire, and soon there was an incredibly powerful fleet near Istanbul. He in the number of 78 ships soon anchored near the cape Kaliakria. Since at that time the Muslim holiday of the Qurban Bairam began, some of the crews were released ashore.

However, the Russian government at this time began negotiations with the weakened enemy, which the Turks were only happy about. But Admiral Ushakov (his biography was thus replenished with yet another battle) did not know about it when he came across the Turkish fleet. According to his old habit, he instantly ordered the rebuilding to march, incidentally firing at the enemy squadron of all guns.

Turks tried to repeat the maneuver, under fire shooting from the raid. So the battle began at Cape Kaliakria. Already the flagship of the Russian fleet "Christmas" mentioned by us attacked the enemy on the run. Soon after, the enemy squadron was dispersed, and in 1791 the peace treaty was finally signed.

Postwar work

After the war, the admiral gives all his strength and time to the preparation and development of the Black Sea Fleet. In 1793 he received the title of Vice Admiral. During this period Ushakov Fedor Fedorovich, whose biography is full of significant events, already has an enormous authority in the fleet, even enemies respect him.

And then there is a curious turn of history: Russia in the coalition against the French becomes an ally of Turkey, with which Ushakov fought a couple of years ago. During the Mediterranean expedition of 1798-1800, the admiral visited Istanbul, where the fleet of Kadir-bey joined his squadron. The task was difficult: to liberate many islands (including the Greek Corfu), as well as to connect to the British under the command of Nelson.

Taking Corfu

Almost all of the targets were captured on the move, but Corfu was a powerful fortress, and so Ushakov first ordered him to take him into the ring of the sea blockade. There was not enough infantry for the united squadron, so it was premature to think about the assault. After long and persistent negotiations, the Turkish side finally sent 4.5 thousand troops, and another 2 thousand was the local militia. It was possible to draw up a plan for taking the object.

Russian paratroopers, under fire from the fort landed on the shore, began to quickly build two artillery batteries. The rest of the infantry was ordered to attack the advanced fortifications of the French. Simultaneously, the storming of the island of Vido began, the garrison of which quickly capitulated.

Shipborne artillery successfully suppressed the batteries of the French, after which the assault began. A part of the wall was quickly captured, after which the garrison realized that further resistance would lead to nothing good. On the Admiral ship "St. Paul" negotiations were begun on surrender.

Career of a diplomat

For this operation Ushakov was made into full admirals. Even the Turks presented their former enemy with many valuable gifts, recognizing his military talent. After these events, the Russian squadron actively assisted the land forces of Suvorov, who at that time were involved in Northern Italy. Actively acting in the Mediterranean Sea, the Russian admiral completely fettered the enemy's trade routes, incidentally blocking the ports in Genoa and Ancona. The landing of his ships showed itself well during the assault and liberation from the French troops of Naples and Rome.

At this time, the old sailor impressed everyone with his talent by a subtle and skilful diplomat, who at the root was able to extinguish problems and negotiate with opponents. It was he who contributed to the formation of the Republic of Seven Islands in Greece, along with other diplomats, created the Greek Senate. The introduction of new orders was enthusiastically accepted by almost all the islanders. These innovations have glorified Ushakov in those parts, but have caused extreme dissatisfaction with Alexander I.

Completion of career

All those six months that the Admiral spent on the Ionian Islands were an unceasing triumph. Local residents treated the naval commander as their liberator from the French occupation. At home, the squadron returned September 26, 1800, mooring in Sevastopol. The Emperor was extremely dissatisfied with Ushakov's republican views, but he could not do something about it, fearing the reaction of the army and the fleet. In 1802, he was removed from really important areas, appointing the head of the rowing fleet in the Baltic and preparatory camps for sailors.

However, Ushakov himself was glad of it: many years of voyages did not contribute to health promotion, and therefore already in 1807 he resigned. During the attack of the French in 1812, he headed the Tambov militia, but because of poor physical well-being he personally did not participate in the battles. The illustrious naval commander died in 1817, was solemnly buried in the Sanaskar Monastery.

Interesting facts about life

In the history of the nautical business of the whole world Ushakov entered not only as an admiral who was unrivaled by any efficiency, but also as the author of a completely new tactic of combat of the sailing fleet. He paid great attention to training the crews of each ship of his squadron, which was very different from the commanders of those years. The admiral was loved by his subordinates: he was tough and demanding, but not cruel.

What else is Ushakov famous for? Interesting facts about him are striking: when the USSR established the order and the medal of his name, it turned out ... that no one knows what the great naval commander looked like in reality. The only portrait of him was dated 1912, when the admiral had not been alive for a hundred years. The solution of the problem was proposed by the famous anthropologist Gerasimov: the crypt of the admiral was opened (and it turned out that some vandals had already managed to steal all personal belongings and a gold sword), from the skull the scientist took measurements, on the basis of which a reconstruction of the appearance was created. It happened in 1944.

But that's not all. In our time, this outstanding man was canonized by the Orthodox Church. Now Saint Admiral Ushakov patronizes all travelers and those people who are just about to embark on a long journey.

And one more fact. In the Sanaxar monastery there are graves ... two Fedorov Ushakovs. One of them is the admiral himself. The other belongs to his uncle, who during his lifetime was the abbot of this monastery. Studying the archives, the scientists found out that the famous sailor loved to visit these walls, resting from the worldly vanity. That's why he wrote a will, according to which he had to be buried next to his uncle.

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